Int512.cs

Int512 Bit Class

using System;
using System.Collections;
using System.ComponentModel;
using System.Diagnostics;
using System.Globalization;
using System.Numerics;
using System.Runtime.InteropServices;
using System.Text;
[Serializable]
[StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential, Pack = 1)]
[TypeConverter(typeof(Int512Converter))]
[DebuggerDisplay("{DDisplay}")]
public struct Int512 : IComparable<Int512>, IComparable, IEquatable<Int512>, IConvertible, IFormattable
{
    private ulong B512;
    private ulong B448;
    private ulong B384;
    private ulong B320;
    private ulong B256;
    private ulong B192;
    private ulong B128;
    private ulong B64;
    [DebuggerBrowsable(DebuggerBrowsableState.Never)]
    private string DDisplay => ToString();
    public static Int512 Zero     = new Int512(0);
    public static Int512 Ten      = new Int512(10);
    public static Int512 One      = new Int512(1);
    public static Int512 MaxValue = GetMaxValue();
    public static Int512 MinValue = GetMinValue();
    private const ulong  HiNeg    = 0x8000000000000000;
    private static Int512 GetMaxValue()
    {
        return new Int512(long.MaxValue, ulong.MaxValue, ulong.MaxValue, ulong.MaxValue, ulong.MaxValue, ulong.MaxValue, ulong.MaxValue, ulong.MaxValue);
    }
    private static Int512 GetMinValue()
    {
        return -GetMaxValue();
    }
    public Int512(Int512 value)
    {
        B512 = value.B512;
        B448 = value.B448;
        B384 = value.B384;
        B320 = value.B320;
        B256 = value.B256;
        B192 = value.B192;
        B128 = value.B128;
        B64  = value.B64;
    }
    public Int512(string value)
    {
        if (!TryParse(value, out var result))
            throw new Exception("TryParse Failed.");
        B512 = result.B512;
        B448 = result.B448;
        B384 = result.B384;
        B320 = result.B320;
        B256 = result.B256;
        B192 = result.B192;
        B128 = result.B128;
        B64  = result.B64;
    }
    public Int512(byte value)
    {
        B512 = 0;
        B448 = 0;
        B384 = 0;
        B320 = 0;
        B256 = 0;
        B192 = 0;
        B128 = 0;
        B64  = value;
    }
    public Int512(bool value)
    {
        B512 = 0;
        B448 = 0;
        B384 = 0;
        B320 = 0;
        B256 = 0;
        B192 = 0;
        B128 = 0;
        B64  = (ulong) (value ? 1 : 0);
    }
    public Int512(char value)
    {
        B512 = 0;
        B448 = 0;
        B384 = 0;
        B320 = 0;
        B256 = 0;
        B192 = 0;
        B128 = 0;
        B64  = value;
    }
    public Int512(BigDecimal value)
    {
        var ba = value.UnscaledValue.ToByteArray();
        B512 = BitConverter.ToUInt64(ba, 56);
        B448 = BitConverter.ToUInt64(ba, 48);
        B384 = BitConverter.ToUInt64(ba, 40);
        B320 = BitConverter.ToUInt64(ba, 32);
        B256 = BitConverter.ToUInt64(ba, 24);
        B192 = BitConverter.ToUInt64(ba, 16);
        B128 = BitConverter.ToUInt64(ba, 8);
        B64  = BitConverter.ToUInt64(ba, 0);
    }
    public Int512(decimal value)
    {
        if (value < 0)
        {
            var n = -new Int512(-value);
            B512 = n.B512;
            B448 = n.B448;
            B384 = n.B384;
            B320 = n.B320;
            B256 = n.B256;
            B192 = n.B192;
            B128 = n.B128;
            B64  = n.B64;
            return;
        }
        var bits = decimal.GetBits(value);
        B512 = 0;
        B448 = 0;
        B384 = 0;
        B320 = 0;
        B256 = 0;
        B192 = (uint) bits[2];
        B128 = (uint) bits[1];
        B64  = (uint) bits[0];
    }
    public Int512(double value) : this((decimal) value)
    {
    }
    public Int512(float value) : this((decimal) value)
    {
    }
    public Int512(short value)
    {
        if (value < 0)
        {
            var n = -new Int512(-(value + 1)) - 1;
            B512 = n.B512;
            B448 = n.B448;
            B384 = n.B384;
            B320 = n.B320;
            B256 = n.B256;
            B192 = n.B192;
            B128 = n.B128;
            B64  = n.B64;
            return;
        }
        B512 = 0;
        B448 = 0;
        B384 = 0;
        B320 = 0;
        B256 = 0;
        B192 = 0;
        B128 = 0;
        B64  = (ulong) value;
    }
    public Int512(int value)
    {
        if (value < 0)
        {
            var n = -new Int512(-(value + 1)) - 1;
            B512 = n.B512;
            B448 = n.B448;
            B384 = n.B384;
            B320 = n.B320;
            B256 = n.B256;
            B192 = n.B192;
            B128 = n.B128;
            B64  = n.B64;
            return;
        }
        B512 = 0;
        B448 = 0;
        B384 = 0;
        B320 = 0;
        B256 = 0;
        B192 = 0;
        B128 = 0;
        B64  = (ulong) value;
    }
    public Int512(long value)
    {
        if (value < 0)
        {
            var n = -new Int512(-(value + 1)) - 1;
            B512 = n.B512;
            B448 = n.B448;
            B384 = n.B384;
            B320 = n.B320;
            B256 = n.B256;
            B192 = n.B192;
            B128 = n.B128;
            B64  = n.B64;
            return;
        }
        B512 = 0;
        B448 = 0;
        B384 = 0;
        B320 = 0;
        B256 = 0;
        B192 = 0;
        B128 = 0;
        B64  = (ulong) value;
    }
    public Int512(sbyte value)
    {
        if (value < 0)
        {
            var n = -new Int512(-(value + 1)) - 1;
            B512 = n.B512;
            B448 = n.B448;
            B384 = n.B384;
            B320 = n.B320;
            B256 = n.B256;
            B192 = n.B192;
            B128 = n.B128;
            B64  = n.B64;
            return;
        }
        B512 = 0;
        B448 = 0;
        B384 = 0;
        B320 = 0;
        B256 = 0;
        B192 = 0;
        B128 = 0;
        B64  = (ulong) value;
    }
    public Int512(ushort value)
    {
        B512 = 0;
        B448 = 0;
        B384 = 0;
        B320 = 0;
        B256 = 0;
        B192 = 0;
        B128 = 0;
        B64  = value;
    }
    public Int512(uint value)
    {
        B512 = 0;
        B448 = 0;
        B384 = 0;
        B320 = 0;
        B256 = 0;
        B192 = 0;
        B128 = 0;
        B64  = value;
    }
    public Int512(ulong value)
    {
        B512 = 0;
        B448 = 0;
        B384 = 0;
        B320 = 0;
        B256 = 0;
        B192 = 0;
        B128 = 0;
        B64  = value;
    }
    public Int512(BigInteger value) : this(value.ToByteArray())
    {
        var aba = MaxValue.ToByteArray();
        var bn  = new BigInteger(aba);
    }
    public Int512(Guid value) : this(value.ToByteArray())
    {
    }
    public Int512(byte[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("Value cannot be null.");
        if (value.Length != 64)
            Array.Resize(ref value, 64);
        B512 = BitConverter.ToUInt64(value, 56);
        B448 = BitConverter.ToUInt64(value, 48);
        B384 = BitConverter.ToUInt64(value, 40);
        B320 = BitConverter.ToUInt64(value, 32);
        B256 = BitConverter.ToUInt64(value, 24);
        B192 = BitConverter.ToUInt64(value, 16);
        B128 = BitConverter.ToUInt64(value, 8);
        B64  = BitConverter.ToUInt64(value, 0);
    }
    public Int512(ulong b512, ulong b448, ulong b384, ulong b320, ulong b256, ulong b192, ulong b128, ulong b64)
    {
        B512 = b512;
        B448 = b448;
        B384 = b384;
        B320 = b320;
        B256 = b256;
        B192 = b192;
        B128 = b128;
        B64  = b64;
    }
    public Int512(int sign, uint[] array)
    {
        if (array == null)
            throw new Exception("Array cannot be null.");
        var b512 = new byte[8];
        var b448 = new byte[8];
        var b384 = new byte[8];
        var b320 = new byte[8];
        var b256 = new byte[8];
        var b192 = new byte[8];
        var b128 = new byte[8];
        var b64  = new byte[8];
        if (array.Length > 0)
        {
            Array.Copy(BitConverter.GetBytes(array[0]), 0, b64, 0, 4);
            if (array.Length > 1)
            {
                Array.Copy(BitConverter.GetBytes(array[1]), 0, b64, 4, 4);
                if (array.Length > 2)
                {
                    Array.Copy(BitConverter.GetBytes(array[2]), 0, b128, 0, 4);
                    if (array.Length > 3)
                    {
                        Array.Copy(BitConverter.GetBytes(array[3]), 0, b128, 4, 4);
                        if (array.Length > 4)
                        {
                            Array.Copy(BitConverter.GetBytes(array[4]), 0, b192, 0, 4);
                            if (array.Length > 5)
                            {
                                Array.Copy(BitConverter.GetBytes(array[5]), 0, b192, 4, 4);
                                if (array.Length > 6)
                                {
                                    Array.Copy(BitConverter.GetBytes(array[6]), 0, b256, 0, 4);
                                    if (array.Length > 7)
                                    {
                                        Array.Copy(BitConverter.GetBytes(array[7]), 0, b256, 4, 4);
                                        if (array.Length > 8)
                                        {
                                            Array.Copy(BitConverter.GetBytes(array[8]), 0, b320, 0, 4);
                                            if (array.Length > 9)
                                            {
                                                Array.Copy(BitConverter.GetBytes(array[9]), 0, b320, 4, 4);
                                                if (array.Length > 10)
                                                {
                                                    Array.Copy(BitConverter.GetBytes(array[10]), 0, b384, 0, 4);
                                                    if (array.Length > 11)
                                                    {
                                                        Array.Copy(BitConverter.GetBytes(array[11]), 0, b384, 4, 4);
                                                        if (array.Length > 12)
                                                        {
                                                            Array.Copy(BitConverter.GetBytes(array[12]), 0, b448, 0, 4);
                                                            if (array.Length > 13)
                                                            {
                                                                Array.Copy(BitConverter.GetBytes(array[13]), 0, b448, 4, 4);
                                                                if (array.Length > 14)
                                                                {
                                                                    Array.Copy(BitConverter.GetBytes(array[14]), 0, b512, 0, 4);
                                                                    if (array.Length > 15)
                                                                        Array.Copy(BitConverter.GetBytes(array[15]), 0, b512, 4, 4);
                                                                }
                                                            }
                                                        }
                                                    }
                                                }
                                            }
                                        }
                                    }
                                }
                            }
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
        }
        B512 = BitConverter.ToUInt64(b512, 0);
        B448 = BitConverter.ToUInt64(b448, 0);
        B384 = BitConverter.ToUInt64(b384, 0);
        B320 = BitConverter.ToUInt64(b320, 0);
        B256 = BitConverter.ToUInt64(b256, 0);
        B192 = BitConverter.ToUInt64(b192, 0);
        B128 = BitConverter.ToUInt64(b128, 0);
        B64  = BitConverter.ToUInt64(b64,  0);
        if (sign < 0)
            B512 |= HiNeg;
        else
            B512 &= ~HiNeg;
    }
    public int BitWidth
    {
        get
        {
            Int512 bitWidth = 1;
            var    v        = this;
            while ((v >>= 1) > 0)
                bitWidth++;
            if (bitWidth < 8)
                bitWidth = 8;
            while (bitWidth % 8 != 0)
                bitWidth++;
            return (int) bitWidth;
        }
    }
    public int Sign
    {
        get
        {
            var allZero = true;
            var ba      = ToUIn32Array();
            for (var i = 0; i < ba.Length; i++)
                if (ba[i] != 0)
                {
                    allZero = false;
                    break;
                }
            if (allZero)
                return 0;
            return (B512 & HiNeg) == 0 ? 1 : -1;
        }
    }
    public bool IsOne      => this     == One;
    public bool IsEven     => this % 2 == 0;
    public bool IsNegative => Sign     < 0;
    public bool IsZero     => B512 == 0 && B448 == 0 && B384 == 0 && B320 == 0 && B256 == 0 && B192 == 0 && B128 == 0 && B64 == 0;
    public override int GetHashCode()
    {
        return B64.GetHashCode() ^ B128.GetHashCode() ^ B192.GetHashCode() ^ B256.GetHashCode() ^ B320.GetHashCode() ^ B384.GetHashCode() ^ B448.GetHashCode() ^ B512.GetHashCode();
    }
    public override bool Equals(object obj)
    {
        return base.Equals(obj);
    }
    public bool Equals(Int512 obj)
    {
        return B512 == obj.B512 && B448 == obj.B448 && B384 == obj.B384 && B320 == obj.B320 && B256 == obj.B256 && B192 == obj.B192 && B128 == obj.B128 && B64 == obj.B64;
    }
    public override string ToString()
    {
        return ToString(null, null);
    }
    public string ToString(string format)
    {
        return ToString(format, null);
    }
    public string ToString(string format, IFormatProvider formatProvider)
    {
        if (formatProvider == null)
            formatProvider = CultureInfo.CurrentCulture;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(format))
        {
            var ch = format[0];
            if (ch == 'x' || ch == 'X')
            {
                int.TryParse(format.Substring(1).Trim(), out var min);
                return ToHexString(ch == 'X', min);
            }
            if (ch != 'G' && ch != 'g' && ch != 'D' && ch != 'd')
                throw new NotSupportedException("Not supported format: " + format);
        }
        return ToString((NumberFormatInfo) formatProvider.GetFormat(typeof(NumberFormatInfo)), 10);
    }
    private string ToHexString(bool caps, int min)
    {
        var bytes = ToByteArray().Invert();
        var sb    = new StringBuilder();
        var x     = caps ? "X" : "x";
        foreach (var b in bytes)
        {
            var hex = b.ToString($"{x}2");
            sb.Append(hex);
        }
        return sb.ToString();
    }
    private string ToString(NumberFormatInfo info, int radix)
    {
        if (radix < 2 || radix > 36)
            throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("radix");
        if (Sign == 0)
            return "0";
        var          negative = Sign < 0;
        var          a        = negative ? Abs(this) : this;
        var          biRadix  = new Int512(radix);
        const string charSet  = "0123456789abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz";
        var          al       = new ArrayList();
        while (a.Sign != 0 && a.B64 != 0)
        {
            Divide(a, biRadix, out var remainder, out var quotient);
            al.Insert(0, charSet[(int) remainder.B64]);
            a = quotient;
        }
        var result = new string((char[]) al.ToArray(typeof(char)));
        if (radix == 10 && negative)
            return "-" + result;
        return result;
    }
    public static Int512 Abs(Int512 value)
    {
        if (ReferenceEquals(value, null))
            throw new ArgumentNullException("value");
        if (value.Sign < 0)
            return -value;
        return value;
    }
    TypeCode IConvertible.GetTypeCode()
    {
        return TypeCode.Object;
    }
    bool IConvertible.ToBoolean(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return (bool) this;
    }
    byte IConvertible.ToByte(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return (byte) this;
    }
    char IConvertible.ToChar(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return (char) this;
    }
    DateTime IConvertible.ToDateTime(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        throw new InvalidCastException();
    }
    decimal IConvertible.ToDecimal(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return (decimal) this;
    }
    double IConvertible.ToDouble(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return (double) this;
    }
    short IConvertible.ToInt16(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return (short) this;
    }
    int IConvertible.ToInt32(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return (int) this;
    }
    long IConvertible.ToInt64(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return (int) this;
    }
    sbyte IConvertible.ToSByte(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return (sbyte) this;
    }
    float IConvertible.ToSingle(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return (float) this;
    }
    string IConvertible.ToString(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return ToString(null, provider);
    }
    public bool TryConvert(Type conversionType, IFormatProvider provider, out object value)
    {
        if (conversionType == typeof(bool))
        {
            value = (bool) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(byte))
        {
            value = (byte) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(char))
        {
            value = (char) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(decimal))
        {
            value = (decimal) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(double))
        {
            value = (double) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(short))
        {
            value = (short) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(int))
        {
            value = (int) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(long))
        {
            value = (long) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(sbyte))
        {
            value = (sbyte) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(float))
        {
            value = (float) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(string))
        {
            value = ToString(null, provider);
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(ushort))
        {
            value = (ushort) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(uint))
        {
            value = (uint) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(ulong))
        {
            value = (ulong) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(byte[]))
        {
            value = ToByteArray();
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(Guid))
        {
            value = new Guid(ToByteArray());
            return true;
        }
        value = null;
        return false;
    }
    public static Int512 Parse(string value)
    {
        return Parse(value, NumberStyles.Integer, NumberFormatInfo.CurrentInfo);
    }
    public static Int512 Parse(string value, NumberStyles style)
    {
        return Parse(value, style, NumberFormatInfo.CurrentInfo);
    }
    public static Int512 Parse(string value, IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return Parse(value, NumberStyles.Integer, NumberFormatInfo.GetInstance(provider));
    }
    public static Int512 Parse(string value, NumberStyles style, IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        if (!TryParse(value, style, provider, out var result))
            throw new Exception($"TryParse value {value} failure.");
        return result;
    }
    public static bool TryParse(string value, out Int512 result)
    {
        return TryParse(value, NumberStyles.Integer, NumberFormatInfo.CurrentInfo, out result);
    }
    public static bool TryParse(string value, NumberStyles style, IFormatProvider provider, out Int512 result)
    {
        result = Zero;
        if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(value))
            return false;
        if (value.StartsWith("x", StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase))
        {
            style |= NumberStyles.AllowHexSpecifier;
            value =  value.Substring(1);
        }
        else
        {
            if (value.StartsWith("0x", StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase))
            {
                style |= NumberStyles.AllowHexSpecifier;
                value =  value.Substring(2);
            }
        }
        if ((style & NumberStyles.AllowHexSpecifier) == NumberStyles.AllowHexSpecifier)
            return TryParseNum(value, 16, out result);
        return TryParseNum(value, 10, out result);
    }
    public static bool TryParseNum(string digits, int radix, out Int512 result)
    {
        result = new Int512();
        if (digits == null)
            return false;
        var multiplier = new Int512(1);
        digits = digits.ToUpper(CultureInfo.CurrentCulture).Trim();
        var nDigits = digits[0] == '-' ? 1 : 0;
        for (var idx = digits.Length - 1; idx >= nDigits; idx--)
        {
            var d = (int) digits[idx];
            if (d >= '0' && d <= '9')
                d -= '0';
            else if (d >= 'A' && d <= 'Z')
                d = d - 'A' + 10;
            else
                return false;
            if (d >= radix)
                return false;
            result     += multiplier * d;
            multiplier *= radix;
        }
        if (digits[0] == '-')
            result = -result;
        return true;
    }
    public object ToType(Type conversionType, IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        object value;
        if (TryConvert(conversionType, provider, out value))
            return value;
        throw new InvalidCastException();
    }
    ushort IConvertible.ToUInt16(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        if (B128 != 0)
            throw new OverflowException();
        return Convert.ToUInt16(B64);
    }
    uint IConvertible.ToUInt32(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        if (B128 != 0)
            throw new OverflowException();
        return Convert.ToUInt32(B64);
    }
    ulong IConvertible.ToUInt64(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        if (B128 != 0)
            throw new OverflowException();
        return B64;
    }
    int IComparable.CompareTo(object obj)
    {
        return Compare(this, obj);
    }
    public static int Compare(Int512 left, object right)
    {
        if (right is Int512)
            return Compare(left, (Int512) right);
        if (right is bool)
            return Compare(left, new Int512((bool) right));
        if (right is byte)
            return Compare(left, new Int512((byte) right));
        if (right is char)
            return Compare(left, new Int512((char) right));
        if (right is decimal)
            return Compare(left, new Int512((decimal) right));
        if (right is double)
            return Compare(left, new Int512((double) right));
        if (right is short)
            return Compare(left, new Int512((short) right));
        if (right is int)
            return Compare(left, new Int512((int) right));
        if (right is long)
            return Compare(left, new Int512((long) right));
        if (right is sbyte)
            return Compare(left, new Int512((sbyte) right));
        if (right is float)
            return Compare(left, new Int512((float) right));
        if (right is ushort)
            return Compare(left, new Int512((ushort) right));
        if (right is uint)
            return Compare(left, new Int512((uint) right));
        if (right is ulong)
            return Compare(left, new Int512((ulong) right));
        var bytes = right as byte[];
        if (bytes != null && bytes.Length != 64)
            return Compare(left, new Int512(bytes));
        if (right is Guid)
            return Compare(left, new Int512((Guid) right));
        throw new ArgumentException();
    }
    public static int Compare(Int512 left, Int512 right)
    {
        if (ReferenceEquals(left, right))
            return 0;
        if (ReferenceEquals(left, null))
            throw new ArgumentNullException("leftSide");
        if (ReferenceEquals(right, null))
            throw new ArgumentNullException("rightSide");
        if (left > right) return 1;
        if (left == right) return 0;
        return -1;
    }
    public int CompareTo(Int512 value)
    {
        return Compare(this, value);
    }
    public static implicit operator Int512(bool value)
    {
        return new Int512(value);
    }
    public static implicit operator Int512(byte value)
    {
        return new Int512(value);
    }
    public static implicit operator Int512(char value)
    {
        return new Int512(value);
    }
    public static explicit operator Int512(decimal value)
    {
        return new Int512(value);
    }
    public static explicit operator Int512(double value)
    {
        return new Int512(value);
    }
    public static implicit operator Int512(short value)
    {
        return new Int512(value);
    }
    public static implicit operator Int512(int value)
    {
        return new Int512(value);
    }
    public static implicit operator Int512(long value)
    {
        return new Int512(value);
    }
    public static implicit operator Int512(sbyte value)
    {
        return new Int512(value);
    }
    public static explicit operator Int512(float value)
    {
        return new Int512(value);
    }
    public static implicit operator Int512(ushort value)
    {
        return new Int512(value);
    }
    public static implicit operator Int512(uint value)
    {
        return new Int512(value);
    }
    public static implicit operator Int512(ulong value)
    {
        return new Int512(value);
    }
    public static implicit operator Int512(BigInteger value)
    {
        return new Int512(value);
    }
    public static implicit operator Int512(BigDecimal value)
    {
        return new Int512(value);
    }
    public static explicit operator bool(Int512 value)
    {
        return (byte) value.B64 != 0;
    }
    public static explicit operator byte(Int512 value)
    {
        return (byte) value.B64;
    }
    public static explicit operator char(Int512 value)
    {
        return (char) (ushort) value.B64;
    }
    public static explicit operator decimal(Int512 value)
    {
        if (value.Sign == 0)
            return 0;
        return new decimal((int) (value.B64 & 0xFFFFFFFF), (int) (value.B64 >> 32), (int) (value.B128 & 0xFFFFFFFF), value.Sign < 0, 0);
    }
    public static explicit operator double(Int512 value)
    {
        if (value.Sign == 0)
            return 0;
        var nfi = CultureInfo.InvariantCulture.NumberFormat;
        if (!double.TryParse(value.ToString(nfi, 10), NumberStyles.Number, nfi, out var d))
            throw new OverflowException();
        return d;
    }
    public static explicit operator float(Int512 value)
    {
        if (value.Sign == 0)
            return 0;
        var nfi = CultureInfo.InvariantCulture.NumberFormat;
        if (!float.TryParse(value.ToString(nfi, 10), NumberStyles.Number, nfi, out var f))
            throw new OverflowException();
        return f;
    }
    public static explicit operator short(Int512 value)
    {
        if (value.B64 > 0x8000)
            throw new OverflowException();
        if (value.B64 == 0x8000 && value.Sign > 0)
            throw new OverflowException();
        return (short) ((int) value.B64 * value.Sign);
    }
    public static explicit operator int(Int512 value)
    {
        if (value.Sign == 0)
            return 0;
        if (value.B64 > 0x80000000)
            throw new OverflowException();
        if (value.B64 == 0x80000000 && value.Sign > 0)
            throw new OverflowException();
        return (int) value.B64 * value.Sign;
    }
    public static explicit operator long(Int512 value)
    {
        if (value.Sign == 0)
            return 0;
        if (value.B64 > long.MaxValue)
            throw new OverflowException();
        return (long) value.B64 * value.Sign;
    }
    public static explicit operator uint(Int512 value)
    {
        if (value.Sign == 0)
            return 0;
        if (value.Sign < 0 || value.B64 > uint.MaxValue)
            throw new OverflowException();
        return (uint) value.B64;
    }
    public static explicit operator ushort(Int512 value)
    {
        if (value.Sign == 0)
            return 0;
        if (value.Sign < 0 || value.B64 > ushort.MaxValue)
            throw new OverflowException();
        return (ushort) value.B64;
    }
    public static explicit operator ulong(Int512 value)
    {
        if (value.Sign < 0 || value.B64 != 0)
            throw new OverflowException();
        return value.B64;
    }
    public static explicit operator BigInteger(Int512 value)
    {
        return new BigInteger(value.ToByteArray());
    }
    public static bool operator >(Int512 left, Int512 right)
    {
        if (ReferenceEquals(left, null))
            throw new ArgumentNullException("left");
        if (ReferenceEquals(right, null))
            throw new ArgumentNullException("right");
        if (left.Sign != right.Sign)
            return right.Sign < 0;
        if (left.B64 != right.B64)
            return left.B64 > right.B64;
        if (left.B128 != right.B128)
            return left.B128 > right.B128;
        if (left.B192 != right.B192)
            return left.B192 > right.B192;
        if (left.B256 != right.B256)
            return left.B256 > right.B256;
        if (left.B320 != right.B320)
            return left.B320 > right.B320;
        if (left.B384 != right.B384)
            return left.B384 > right.B384;
        if (left.B448 != right.B448)
            return left.B448 > right.B448;
        if (left.B512 != right.B512)
            return left.B512 > right.B512;
        return false;
    }
    public static bool operator <(Int512 left, Int512 right)
    {
        return Compare(left, right) < 0;
    }
    public static bool operator >=(Int512 left, Int512 right)
    {
        return Compare(left, right) >= 0;
    }
    public static bool operator <=(Int512 left, Int512 right)
    {
        return Compare(left, right) <= 0;
    }
    public static bool operator !=(Int512 left, Int512 right)
    {
        return Compare(left, right) != 0;
    }
    public static bool operator ==(Int512 left, Int512 right)
    {
        if (ReferenceEquals(left, right))
            return true;
        if (ReferenceEquals(left, null) || ReferenceEquals(right, null))
            return false;
        if (left.Sign != right.Sign)
            return false;
        return left.Equals(right);
    }
    public static Int512 operator +(Int512 value)
    {
        return value;
    }
    public static Int512 operator ~(Int512 value)
    {
        return -(value + One);
    }
    public static Int512 operator -(Int512 value)
    {
        return Negate(value);
    }
    public static Int512 operator ++(Int512 value)
    {
        return value + 1;
    }
    public static Int512 operator --(Int512 value)
    {
        return value - 1;
    }
    public static Int512 Negate(Int512 value)
    {
        return new Int512(~value.B512, ~value.B448, ~value.B384, ~value.B320, ~value.B256, ~value.B192, ~value.B128, ~value.B64) + 1;
    }
    public static Int512 operator +(Int512 left, Int512 right)
    {
        var  larr   = left.ToUIn32Array();
        var  rarr   = right.ToUIn32Array();
        var  dl     = larr.Length > rarr.Length ? larr.Length : rarr.Length;
        var  result = new uint[dl];
        long carry  = 0;
        for (var i = 0; i < dl; i++)
        {
            var sum = larr[i] + (long) rarr[i] + carry;
            carry     = sum >> 32;
            result[i] = (uint) (sum & 0xFFFFFFFF);
        }
        if (carry != 0)
        {
            var idx = 0;
            while (idx< result.Length-1)
            {
                if (result[idx] == 0)
                    break;
                idx++;
            }
            result[idx] = (uint) carry;
        }
        return new Int512(left.Sign * right.Sign, result);
    }
    public static Int512 operator -(Int512 left, Int512 right)
    {
        return left + -right;
    }
    public static Int512 Add(Int512 left, Int512 right)
    {
        return left + right;
    }
    public static Int512 Subtract(Int512 left, Int512 right)
    {
        return left - right;
    }
    public static Int512 Divide(Int512 dividend, Int512 divisor)
    {
        return DivRem(dividend, divisor, out var integer);
    }
    public static void Divide(Int512 dividend, Int512 divisor, out Int512 remainder, out Int512 quotient)
    {
        if (divisor == 0)
            throw new DivideByZeroException();
        DivRem(dividend.ToUIn32Array(), divisor.ToUIn32Array(), out var quo, out var rem);
        remainder = new Int512(1,                            rem);
        quotient  = new Int512(dividend.Sign * divisor.Sign, quo);
    }
    public static Int512 DivRem(Int512 dividend, Int512 divisor, out Int512 remainder)
    {
        if (divisor == 0)
            throw new DivideByZeroException();
        DivRem(dividend.ToUIn32Array(), divisor.ToUIn32Array(), out var quotient, out var rem);
        remainder = new Int512(1, rem);
        return new Int512(dividend.Sign * divisor.Sign, quotient);
    }
    private static void DivRem(uint[] dividend, uint[] divisor, out uint[] quotient, out uint[] remainder)
    {
        const ulong hiBit       = 0x100000000;
        var         divisorLen  = GetLength(divisor);
        var         dividendLen = GetLength(dividend);
        if (divisorLen <= 1)
        {
            ulong rem = 0;
            var   div = divisor[0];
            quotient  = new uint[dividendLen];
            remainder = new uint[1];
            for (var i = dividendLen - 1; i >= 0; i--)
            {
                rem *= hiBit;
                rem += dividend[i];
                var q = rem / div;
                rem         -= q * div;
                quotient[i] =  (uint) q;
            }
            remainder[0] = (uint) rem;
            return;
        }
        if (dividendLen >= divisorLen)
        {
            var shift        = GetNormalizeShift(divisor[divisorLen - 1]);
            var normDividend = new uint[dividendLen + 1];
            var normDivisor  = new uint[divisorLen];
            Normalize(dividend, dividendLen, normDividend, shift);
            Normalize(divisor,  divisorLen,  normDivisor,  shift);
            quotient = new uint[dividendLen - divisorLen + 1];
            for (var j = dividendLen - divisorLen; j >= 0; j--)
            {
                var dx = hiBit * normDividend[j + divisorLen] + normDividend[j + divisorLen - 1];
                var qj = dx / normDivisor[divisorLen                                        - 1];
                dx -= qj * normDivisor[divisorLen - 1];
                do
                {
                    if (qj < hiBit && qj * normDivisor[divisorLen - 2] <= dx * hiBit + normDividend[j + divisorLen - 2])
                        break;
                    qj -= 1L;
                    dx += normDivisor[divisorLen - 1];
                } while (dx < hiBit);
                ulong di = 0;
                ulong dj;
                var   index = 0;
                while (index < divisorLen)
                {
                    var dqj = normDivisor[index] * qj;
                    dj                      = normDividend[index + j] - (uint) dqj - di;
                    normDividend[index + j] = (uint) dj;
                    dqj                     = dqj >> 32;
                    dj                      = dj  >> 32;
                    di                      = dqj - dj;
                    index++;
                }
                dj                           = normDividend[j + divisorLen] - di;
                normDividend[j + divisorLen] = (uint) dj;
                quotient[j]                  = (uint) qj;
                if ((long)dj < 0)
                {
                    quotient[j]--;
                    ulong sum = 0;
                    for (index = 0; index < divisorLen; index++)
                    {
                        sum                     = normDivisor[index] + normDividend[j + index] + sum;
                        normDividend[j + index] = (uint) sum;
                        sum                     = sum >> 32;
                    }
                    sum += normDividend[j + divisorLen];
                    normDividend[j        + divisorLen] = (uint) sum;
                }
            }
            remainder = Unnormalize(normDividend, shift);
            return;
        }
        quotient  = new uint[0];
        remainder = dividend;
    }
    private static int GetLength(uint[] uints)
    {
        var index = uints.Length - 1;
        while (index >= 0 && uints[index] == 0)
            index--;
        return index + 1;
    }
    private static int GetNormalizeShift(uint ui)
    {
        var shift = 0;
        if ((ui & 0xffff0000) == 0)
        {
            ui    =  ui << 16;
            shift += 16;
        }
        if ((ui & 0xff000000) == 0)
        {
            ui    =  ui << 8;
            shift += 8;
        }
        if ((ui & 0xf0000000) == 0)
        {
            ui    =  ui << 4;
            shift += 4;
        }
        if ((ui & 0xc0000000) == 0)
        {
            ui    =  ui << 2;
            shift += 2;
        }
        if ((ui & 0x80000000) == 0)
            shift++;
        return shift;
    }
    private static uint[] Unnormalize(uint[] normalized, int shift)
    {
        var len          = GetLength(normalized);
        var unnormalized = new uint[len];
        if (shift > 0)
        {
            var  rshift = 32 - shift;
            uint r      = 0;
            for (var i = len - 1; i >= 0; i--)
            {
                unnormalized[i] = (normalized[i] >> shift) | r;
                r               = normalized[i] << rshift;
            }
        }
        else
        {
            for (var j = 0; j < len; j++)
                unnormalized[j] = normalized[j];
        }
        return unnormalized;
    }
    private static void Normalize(uint[] unormalized, int len, uint[] normalized, int shift)
    {
        int  i;
        uint n = 0;
        if (shift > 0)
        {
            var rShift = 32 - shift;
            for (i = 0; i < len; i++)
            {
                normalized[i] = (unormalized[i] << shift) | n;
                n             = unormalized[i] >> rShift;
            }
        }
        else
        {
            i = 0;
            while (i < len)
            {
                normalized[i] = unormalized[i];
                i++;
            }
        }
        while (i < normalized.Length)
            normalized[i++] = 0;
        if (n != 0)
            normalized[len] = n;
    }
    public static Int512 Remainder(Int512 dividend, Int512 divisor)
    {
        DivRem(dividend, divisor, out var remainder);
        return remainder;
    }
    public static Int512 Max(Int512 left, Int512 right)
    {
        return left.CompareTo(right) < 0 ? right : left;
    }
    public static Int512 Min(Int512 left, Int512 right)
    {
        return left.CompareTo(right) <= 0 ? left : right;
    }
    public static int GetBitWidth(Int512 n)
    {
        Int512 bitWidth = 1;
        var    v        = n;
        while ((v >>= 1) > 0)
            bitWidth++;
        if (bitWidth < 8)
            bitWidth = 8;
        while (bitWidth % 8 != 0)
            bitWidth++;
        return (int) bitWidth;
    }
    public static Int512 operator %(Int512 dividend, Int512 divisor)
    {
        return Remainder(dividend, divisor);
    }
    public static Int512 operator /(Int512 dividend, Int512 divisor)
    {
        return Divide(dividend, divisor);
    }
    public ulong[] ToUIn64Array()
    {
        return new[] {B64, B128, B192, B256, B320, B384, B448, B512};
    }
    public uint[] ToUIn32Array()
    {
        var uia = new uint[16];
        var ula = ToUIn64Array();
        Buffer.BlockCopy(ula, 0, uia, 0, 64);
        return uia;
    }
    public byte[] ToByteArray()
    {
        var ba  = new byte[64];
        var ula = ToUIn64Array();
        Buffer.BlockCopy(ula, 0, ba, 0, 64);
        return ba;
    }
    public static Int512 Multiply(Int512 left, Int512 right)
    {
        var xInts   = left.ToUIn32Array();
        var yInts   = right.ToUIn32Array();
        var mulInts = new uint[Math.Max(xInts.Length, yInts.Length) << 1];
        for (var i = 0; i < xInts.Length; i++)
        {
            var   index     = i;
            ulong remainder = 0;
            foreach (var yi in yInts)
            {
                remainder        = remainder + (ulong) xInts[i] * yi + mulInts[index];
                mulInts[index++] = (uint) remainder;
                remainder        = remainder >> 32;
            }
            while (remainder != 0)
            {
                remainder        += mulInts[index];
                mulInts[index++] =  (uint) remainder;
                remainder        =  remainder >> 32;
            }
        }
        return new Int512(left.Sign * right.Sign, mulInts);
    }
    public static Int512 operator *(Int512 left, Int512 right)
    {
        return Multiply(left, right);
    }
    public static Int512 operator >>(Int512 value, int shift)
    {
        var values      = value.ToUIn64Array();
        var valueLength = sizeof(ulong) * 8;
        var length      = values.Length;
        shift = shift % (length * valueLength);
        var shiftOffset = shift / valueLength;
        var bshift      = shift % valueLength;
        var shifted     = new ulong[length];
        for (var i = 0; i < length; i++)
        {
            var ishift = i - shiftOffset;
            if (ishift < 0)
                continue;
            shifted[ishift] |= values[i] >> bshift;
            if (bshift > 0 && i + 1 < length)
                shifted[ishift] |= values[i + 1] << (valueLength - bshift);
        }
        return new Int512(shifted[7], shifted[6], shifted[5], shifted[4], shifted[3], shifted[2], shifted[1], shifted[0]);
    }
    public static Int512 operator <<(Int512 value, int shift)
    {
        var values      = value.ToUIn64Array();
        var valueLength = sizeof(ulong) * 8;
        var length      = values.Length;
        shift %= length * valueLength;
        var shiftOffset = shift / valueLength;
        var bshift      = shift % valueLength;
        var shifted     = new ulong[length];
        for (var i = 0; i < length; i++)
        {
            var ishift = i + shiftOffset;
            if (ishift >= length)
                continue;
            shifted[ishift] |= values[i] << bshift;
            if (bshift > 0 && i - 1 >= 0)
                shifted[ishift] |= values[i - 1] >> (valueLength - bshift);
        }
        return new Int512(shifted[7], shifted[6], shifted[5], shifted[4], shifted[3], shifted[2], shifted[1], shifted[0]);
    }
    public static Int512 operator |(Int512 left, Int512 right)
    {
        if (left == 0)
            return right;
        if (right == 0)
            return left;
        var x = left.ToUIn32Array();
        var y = right.ToUIn32Array();
        var z = new uint[Math.Max(x.Length, y.Length)];
        for (var i = 0; i < z.Length; i++)
        {
            var xu = i < x.Length ? x[i] : 0u;
            var yu = i < y.Length ? y[i] : 0u;
            z[i] = xu | yu;
        }
        return new Int512(left.Sign * right.Sign, z);
    }
    public static Int512 operator ^(Int512 left, Int512 right)
    {
        var x = left.ToUIn32Array();
        var y = right.ToUIn32Array();
        var z = new uint[Math.Max(x.Length, y.Length)];
        for (var i = 0; i < z.Length; i++)
        {
            var xu = i < x.Length ? x[i] : 0u;
            var yu = i < y.Length ? y[i] : 0u;
            z[i] = xu ^ yu;
        }
        return new Int512(left.Sign * right.Sign, z);
    }
    public static Int512 operator &(Int512 left, Int512 right)
    {
        if (left == 0 || right == 0)
            return Zero;
        var x = left.ToUIn32Array();
        var y = right.ToUIn32Array();
        var z = new uint[Math.Max(x.Length, y.Length)];
        for (var i = 0; i < z.Length; i++)
        {
            var xu = i < x.Length ? x[i] : 0u;
            var yu = i < y.Length ? y[i] : 0u;
            z[i] = xu & yu;
        }
        return new Int512(left.Sign * right.Sign, z);
    }
    private class Int512Converter : TypeConverter
    {
        public override bool CanConvertFrom(ITypeDescriptorContext context, Type sourceType)
        {
            return sourceType == typeof(string) || base.CanConvertFrom(context, sourceType);
        }
        public override object ConvertFrom(ITypeDescriptorContext context, CultureInfo culture, object value)
        {
            if (value != null)
                if (TryParse($"{value}", out var i))
                    return i;
            return new Int512();
        }
        public override bool CanConvertTo(ITypeDescriptorContext context, Type destinationType)
        {
            return destinationType == typeof(string) || base.CanConvertTo(context, destinationType);
        }
        public override object ConvertTo(ITypeDescriptorContext context, CultureInfo culture, object value, Type destinationType)
        {
            return destinationType == typeof(string) ? $"{value}" : base.ConvertTo(context, culture, value, destinationType);
        }
    }
}

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