GetBytesClass.cs

GetBytes Primitive, Serializable, Non-Serializable Arrays

Updated: Jan-13,2021

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.IO;
using System.Linq;
using System.Numerics;
using System.Reflection;
using System.Runtime.InteropServices;
using System.Runtime.Serialization.Formatters.Binary;
using System.Security;
using System.Security.Cryptography;
using System.Text;
public static class GetBytesClass
{
    private static readonly int                      _charSize = sizeof(char);
    private static readonly BinaryFormatter          Formatter = new BinaryFormatter();
    private static readonly MonitorActionFuncWrapper _maf      = new MonitorActionFuncWrapper();
    private static readonly SHA512Managed            _hash     = new SHA512Managed();
    private static readonly object                   _lo       = new object();
    public static byte[] GetHashCodeU<T>(this T obj, int bitWidth)
    {
        return _maf.Lock(_hash, () =>
        {
            var buf = GetBytes(obj);
            if (bitWidth < 16 || bitWidth > 512)
                throw new ArgumentException($"Bit Width {bitWidth} must be between 16 and 512.");
            return _hash.ComputeHash(buf).SubByte(0, bitWidth >> 3);
        });
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     GetBytes central GetType takes 22 Nanoseconds per call
    /// </summary>
    [SecurityCritical]
    public static byte[] GetBytes(this object obj)
    {
        var ltype = obj.GetType();
        switch (ltype.Name.Trim('[', ']'))
        {
            case "Byte":
                return !ltype.IsArray ? new[] {(byte) obj} : (byte[]) obj;
            case "Boolean":
                return !ltype.IsArray ? GetBytes((bool) obj) : GetBytes((bool[]) obj);
            case "SByte":
                return !ltype.IsArray ? GetBytes((sbyte) obj) : GetBytes((sbyte[]) obj);
            case "Char":
                return !ltype.IsArray ? GetBytes((char) obj) : GetBytes((char[]) obj);
            case "Int16":
                return !ltype.IsArray ? GetBytes((short) obj) : GetBytes((short[]) obj);
            case "UInt16":
                return !ltype.IsArray ? GetBytes((ushort) obj) : GetBytes((ushort[]) obj);
            case "Int32":
                return !ltype.IsArray ? GetBytes((int) obj) : GetBytes((int[]) obj);
            case "UInt32":
                return !ltype.IsArray ? GetBytes((uint) obj) : GetBytes((uint[]) obj);
            case "Int64":
                return !ltype.IsArray ? GetBytes((long) obj) : GetBytes((long[]) obj);
            case "UInt64":
                return !ltype.IsArray ? GetBytes((ulong) obj) : GetBytes((ulong[]) obj);
            case "Single":
                return !ltype.IsArray ? GetBytes((float) obj) : GetBytes((float[]) obj);
            case "Double":
                return !ltype.IsArray ? GetBytes((double) obj) : GetBytes((double[]) obj);
            case "String":
                return !ltype.IsArray ? GetBytes((string) obj) : GetBytes((string[]) obj);
            case "Decimal":
                return !ltype.IsArray ? GetBytes((decimal) obj) : GetBytes((decimal[]) obj);
            case "DateTime":
                return !ltype.IsArray ? GetBytes((DateTime) obj) : GetBytes((DateTime[]) obj);
            case "SecureString":
                return !ltype.IsArray ? GetBytes((SecureString) obj) : GetBytes((SecureString[]) obj);
            case "xIntX":
                return !ltype.IsArray ? xIntX.GetBytesInt((xIntX) obj) : GetBytes((xIntX[]) obj);
            case "BigInteger":
                return !ltype.IsArray ? ((BigInteger) obj).ToByteArray() : GetBytes((BigInteger[]) obj);
        }
        return RawReferenceValueTypeObjectGetBytes(obj);
    }
    private static bool IsValidPrimitive(Type ltype)
    {
        switch (ltype.Name.Trim('[', ']'))
        {
            case "Byte":
            case "Boolean":
            case "SByte":
            case "Char":
            case "Int16":
            case "UInt16":
            case "Int32":
            case "UInt32":
            case "Int64":
            case "UInt64":
            case "Single":
            case "Double":
            case "String":
            case "Decimal":
            case "DateTime":
                return true;
            default:
                return false;
        }
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a single boolean object
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    private static byte[] GetBytes(bool value)
    {
        return new[] {value ? (byte) 1 : (byte) 0};
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from an array of boolean objects
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    private static byte[] GetBytes(bool[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (bool[]) object cannot be null.");
        var seed = new byte[0];
        return value.Aggregate(seed, (Current, bl) => Current.Add(bl.GetBytes()));
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a single byte object
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    private static byte[] GetBytes(byte value)
    {
        return new[] {value};
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a sbyte short object
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    [SecuritySafeCritical]
    private static unsafe byte[] GetBytes(sbyte value)
    {
        var numArray = new byte[1];
        fixed (byte* ptr = numArray)
        {
            *(sbyte*) ptr = value;
        }
        return numArray;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from an array of sbyte objects
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    private static byte[] GetBytes(sbyte[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (sbyte[]) object cannot be null.");
        var numArray = new byte[value.Length];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, numArray, 0, numArray.Length);
        return numArray;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a single short object
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    [SecuritySafeCritical]
    private static unsafe byte[] GetBytes(short value)
    {
        var numArray = new byte[2];
        fixed (byte* ptr = numArray)
        {
            *(short*) ptr = value;
        }
        return numArray;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from an array of short objects
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    private static byte[] GetBytes(short[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (short[]) object cannot be null.");
        var numArray = new byte[value.Length * 2];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, numArray, 0, numArray.Length);
        return numArray;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a single unsigned short object
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    private static byte[] GetBytes(ushort value)
    {
        return ((short) value).GetBytes();
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from an array of unsigned short objects
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    private static byte[] GetBytes(ushort[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (ushort[]) object cannot be null.");
        var numArray = new byte[value.Length * 2];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, numArray, 0, numArray.Length);
        return numArray;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a single character object
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    private static byte[] GetBytes(char value)
    {
        return ((short) value).GetBytes();
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from an array of character objects
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    private static byte[] GetBytes(char[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (char[]) object cannot be null.");
        var numArray = new byte[value.Length * 2];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, numArray, 0, numArray.Length);
        return numArray;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a single integer object
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    [SecuritySafeCritical]
    private static unsafe byte[] GetBytes(int value)
    {
        var numArray = new byte[4];
        fixed (byte* ptr = numArray)
        {
            *(int*) ptr = value;
        }
        return numArray;
    }
    
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from an array of integer objects
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    private static byte[] GetBytes(int[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (int[]) object cannot be null.");
        var numArray = new byte[value.Length * 4];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, numArray, 0, numArray.Length);
        return numArray;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a single unsigned integer object
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    private static byte[] GetBytes(uint value)
    {
        return ((int) value).GetBytes();
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from an array of unsigned integer objects
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    private static byte[] GetBytes(uint[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (uint[]) object cannot be null.");
        var numArray = new byte[value.Length * 4];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, numArray, 0, numArray.Length);
        return numArray;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a single long object
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    private static unsafe byte[] GetBytes(long value)
    {
        var numArray = new byte[8];
        fixed (byte* ptr = numArray)
        {
            *(long*) ptr = value;
        }
        return numArray;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from an array of long objects
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    private static byte[] GetBytes(long[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (long[]) object cannot be null.");
        var numArray = new byte[value.Length * 8];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, numArray, 0, numArray.Length);
        return numArray;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from an array of long objects with index and count
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] GetBytes(long value, int sIndex = 0, int count = 8)
    {
        if (count > 8)
            throw new Exception("Size cannot exceed 8 bytes.");
        return value.GetBytes().SubArray(sIndex, count);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a single unsigned long object
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    private static byte[] GetBytes(ulong value)
    {
        return ((long) value).GetBytes();
    }
    public static byte[] GetBytes(this ulong value, int sIndex = 0, int count = 8)
    {
        if (count > 8)
            throw new Exception("Size cannot exceed 8 bytes.");
        return ((long) value).GetBytes().SubArray(sIndex, count);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from an array of unsigned long objects
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    private static byte[] GetBytes(ulong[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (ulong[]) object cannot be null.");
        var numArray = new byte[value.Length * 8];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, numArray, 0, numArray.Length);
        return numArray;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a single float object
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    [SecuritySafeCritical]
    private static unsafe byte[] GetBytes(float value)
    {
        return (*(int*) &value).GetBytes();
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from an array of float objects
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    private static byte[] GetBytes(float[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (float[]) object cannot be null.");
        var numArray = new byte[value.Length * 4];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, numArray, 0, numArray.Length);
        return numArray;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a single double object
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    private static unsafe byte[] GetBytes(double value)
    {
        return (*(long*) &value).GetBytes();
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from an array of double objects
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    private static byte[] GetBytes(double[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (double[]) object cannot be null.");
        var numArray = new byte[value.Length * 8];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, numArray, 0, numArray.Length);
        return numArray;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a single decimal object
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    private static unsafe byte[] GetBytes(decimal value)
    {
        var array = new byte[16];
        fixed (byte* bp = array)
        {
            *(decimal*) bp = value;
        }
        return array;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a single DateTime object
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    private static byte[] GetBytes(DateTime value)
    {
        return value.Ticks.GetBytes();
    }
    private static byte[] GetBytes(DateTime[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (DateTime[]) object cannot be null.");
        var sodt = 0;
        unsafe
        {
            sodt = sizeof(DateTime);
        }
        var numArray = new byte[value.Length * sodt];
        for (var i = 0; i < value.Length; i++)
        {
            var dba = value[i].GetBytes();
            Buffer.BlockCopy(dba, 0, numArray, i * sodt, sodt);
        }
        return numArray;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from an array of decimal objects
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    private static byte[] GetBytes(decimal[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (decimal[]) object cannot be null.");
        var numArray = new byte[value.Length * 16];
        for (var i = 0; i < value.Length; i++)
        {
            var dba = value[i].GetBytes();
            Buffer.BlockCopy(dba, 0, numArray, i * 16, 16);
        }
        return numArray;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a single string object using a specified Encoding.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] GetBytes(this string value, Encoding enc = null)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (string) object cannot be null.");
        if (enc == null)
            return Encoding.ASCII.GetBytes(value);
        switch (enc)
        {
            case ASCIIEncoding AsciiEncoding:
            {
                return Encoding.ASCII.GetBytes(value);
            }
            case UnicodeEncoding UnicodeEncoding:
            {
                var ba  = Encoding.Unicode.GetBytes(value);
                var pre = new byte[] {0xff, 0xfe};
                var ra  = new byte[ba.Length + 2];
                Array.Copy(pre, 0, ra, 0, 2);
                Array.Copy(ba,  0, ra, 2, ba.Length);
                return ra;
            }
            case UTF32Encoding Utf32Encoding:
            {
                var ba  = Encoding.UTF32.GetBytes(value);
                var pre = new byte[] {0xff, 0xfe, 0, 0};
                var ra  = new byte[ba.Length + 4];
                Array.Copy(pre, 0, ra, 0, 4);
                Array.Copy(ba,  0, ra, 4, ba.Length);
                return ra;
            }
            case UTF7Encoding Utf7Encoding:
            {
                var ba  = Encoding.UTF7.GetBytes(value);
                var pre = new byte[] {0x2b, 0x2f, 0x76};
                var ra  = new byte[ba.Length + 3];
                Array.Copy(pre, 0, ra, 0, 3);
                Array.Copy(ba,  0, ra, 3, ba.Length);
                return ra;
            }
            case UTF8Encoding Utf8Encoding:
            {
                var ba  = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(value);
                var pre = new byte[] {0xef, 0xbb, 0xbf};
                var ra  = new byte[ba.Length + 3];
                Array.Copy(pre, 0, ra, 0, 3);
                Array.Copy(ba,  0, ra, 3, ba.Length);
                return ra;
            }
            default:
                return Encoding.ASCII.GetBytes(value);
        }
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a array of string objects.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] GetBytes(this string[] value, Encoding enc = null)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (string[]) object cannot be null.");
        var numArray  = new byte[value.Where(ss => ss != null).Sum(ss => ss.Length)];
        var dstOffset = 0;
        foreach (var str in value)
            if (str != null)
            {
                Buffer.BlockCopy(str.GetBytes(enc), 0, numArray, dstOffset, str.Length);
                dstOffset += str.Length;
            }
        return numArray;
    }
    
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from an array of secure string objects
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    private static byte[] GetBytes(SecureString[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (SecureString[]) object cannot be null.");
        var source = new List<byte[]>();
        foreach (var secureString in value)
            if (secureString != null)
            {
                var byteArray = secureString.GetBytes();
                source.Add(byteArray.CloneTo());
            }
        var seed = new byte[source.Sum(ba => ba.Length)];
        return source.Aggregate(seed, (Current, ba) => Current.Add(ba));
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a single secure string object using a specified encoding
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static unsafe byte[] GetBytes(this SecureString value, Encoding enc = null)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (SecureString) object cannot be null.");
        if (enc == null)
            enc = Encoding.Default;
        var maxLength = enc.GetMaxByteCount(value.Length);
        var bytes     = IntPtr.Zero;
        var str       = IntPtr.Zero;
        try
        {
            bytes = Marshal.AllocHGlobal(maxLength);
            str   = Marshal.SecureStringToBSTR(value);
            var chars  = (char*) str.ToPointer();
            var bptr   = (byte*) bytes.ToPointer();
            var len    = enc.GetBytes(chars, value.Length, bptr, maxLength);
            var _bytes = new byte[len];
            for (var i = 0; i < len; ++i)
            {
                _bytes[i] = *bptr;
                bptr++;
            }
            return _bytes;
        }
        finally
        {
            if (bytes != IntPtr.Zero)
                Marshal.FreeHGlobal(bytes);
            if (str != IntPtr.Zero)
                Marshal.ZeroFreeBSTR(str);
        }
    }
    private static byte[] GetBytes(xIntX[] value)
    {
        var r = Array.Empty<byte>();
        if (value != null)
            for (var i = 0; i < value.Length; ++i)
            {
                var lb = xIntX.GetBytesInt(value[i]);
                Array.Resize(ref r, r.Length + lb.Length);
                r = r.Add(lb);
            }
        return r;
    }
    private static byte[] GetBytes(BigInteger[] value)
    {
        var r = Array.Empty<byte>();
        if (value != null)
            for (var i = 0; i < value.Length; ++i)
            {
                var lb = GetBytes(value[i]);
                Array.Resize(ref r, r.Length + lb.Length);
                r = r.Add(lb);
            }
        return r;
    }
    private static byte[] GetBytes(BigInteger value)
    {
        return GetBytes(value.Sign).Add(value.ToByteArray());
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Gets list of byte arrays from a list of objects of type T.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static List<byte[]> GetBytesObject<T>(this List<T> value)
    {
        return value.Select(o => o.GetBytes()).ToList();
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Gets a single object of type T from a byte array.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static T ToObject<T>(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("value cannot be null.");
        using (var stream = new MemoryStream(value))
        {
            var formatter = new BinaryFormatter();
            var result    = (T) formatter.Deserialize(stream);
            return result;
        }
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Gets an array of objects of type T from a list of byte arrays.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static T[] ToObject<T>(this List<byte[]> value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("value cannot be null.");
        if (value.Count == 0)
            throw new Exception("value is empty.");
        var lst = new List<T>();
        foreach (var o in value)
            lst.Add(o.ToObject<T>());
        return lst.ToArray();
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Converts a hex string to a byte array.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] HexToBytes(this string hex)
    {
        if (hex.Length % 2 != 0)
            throw new Exception($"Incomplete Hex string {hex}");
        if (!hex.ContainsOnly("0123456789abcdefABCDEFxX"))
            throw new Exception("Error: hexNumber cannot contain characters other than 0-9,a-f,A-F, or xX");
        hex = hex.ToUpper();
        if (hex.IndexOf("0X", StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase) != -1)
            hex = hex.Substring(2);
        return Enumerable.Range(0, hex.Length).Where(x => x % 2 == 0).Select(x => Convert.ToByte(hex.Substring(x, 2), 16)).ToArray();
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Converts a byte array to a hex string.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static string ToHexString(this byte[] bytes)
    {
        var sb = new StringBuilder();
        foreach (var b in bytes)
            sb.Append(b.ToString("X2"));
        return sb.ToString();
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Converts a hex string to an unsigned long.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static unsafe ulong FromHexStringTo(this string value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("Value cannot be null.");
        if (value.Length == 0)
            return 0;
        var ba = value.HexToBytes();
        ba = ba.Invert();
        if (ba.Length > 8)
            throw new Exception("Maximum bit width is limited to 64 bits.");
        var len = ba.Length;
        switch (len)
        {
            case 1:
                fixed (byte* ptr = &ba[0])
                {
                    return *ptr;
                }
            case 2:
                fixed (byte* ptr = &ba[0])
                {
                    return *ptr | ((ulong) ptr[1] << 8);
                }
            case 3:
                fixed (byte* ptr = &ba[0])
                {
                    return *ptr | ((ulong) ptr[1] << 8) | ((ulong) ptr[2] << 16);
                }
            case 4:
                fixed (byte* ptr = &ba[0])
                {
                    return *ptr | ((ulong) ptr[1] << 8) | ((ulong) ptr[2] << 16) | ((ulong) ptr[3] << 24);
                }
            case 5:
                fixed (byte* ptr = &ba[0])
                {
                    return *ptr | ((ulong) ptr[1] << 8) | ((ulong) ptr[2] << 16) | ((ulong) ptr[3] << 24) | ((ulong) ptr[4] << 32);
                }
            case 6:
                fixed (byte* ptr = &ba[0])
                {
                    return *ptr | ((ulong) ptr[1] << 8) | ((ulong) ptr[2] << 16) | ((ulong) ptr[3] << 24) | ((ptr[4] | ((ulong) ptr[5] << 8)) << 32);
                }
            case 7:
                fixed (byte* ptr = &ba[0])
                {
                    return *ptr | ((ulong) ptr[1] << 8) | ((ulong) ptr[2] << 16) | ((ulong) ptr[3] << 24) | ((ptr[4] | ((ulong) ptr[5] << 8) | ((ulong) ptr[6] << 16)) << 32);
                }
            case 8:
                fixed (byte* ptr = &ba[0])
                {
                    return *ptr | ((ulong) ptr[1]                                                              << 8) | ((ulong) ptr[2] << 16) | ((ulong) ptr[3] << 24) |
                           ((ptr[4] | ((ulong) ptr[5] << 8) | ((ulong) ptr[6] << 16) | ((ulong) ptr[7] << 24)) << 32);
                }
            default:
                return 0;
        }
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Converts a byte array to a hex string.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static string ToBinaryString(this byte[] bytes)
    {
        var len = bytes.Length;
        var sb  = new StringBuilder();
        for (var i = 0; i < len; i++)
            sb.Append(Convert.ToString(bytes[i], 2).PadLeft(8, '0'));
        return sb.ToString();
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Converts a binary string to an unsigned long.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static ulong FromBinaryStringTo(this string value)
    {
        var reversed = value.Reverse().ToArray();
        var num      = 0ul;
        for (var p = 0; p < reversed.Count(); p++)
        {
            if (reversed[p] != '1')
                continue;
            num += (ulong) Math.Pow(2, p);
        }
        return num;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Converts a binary string to a byte array.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] GetBytesFromBinaryString(this string value)
    {
        if (!value.ContainsOnly("01"))
            throw new Exception($"Error: Binary string can only contains 0's and 1's. Value:{value}");
        var len   = value.Length;
        var bLen  = (int) Math.Ceiling(len / 8d);
        var bytes = new byte[bLen];
        var size  = 8;
        for (var i = 1; i <= bLen; i++)
        {
            var idx = len - 8 * i;
            if (idx < 0)
            {
                size = 8 + idx;
                idx  = 0;
            }
            bytes[bLen - i] = Convert.ToByte(value.Substring(idx, size), 2);
        }
        return bytes;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Converts a byte array to a octal string.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static string ToOctalString(this byte[] value)
    {
        value = value.Invert();
        var index = value.Length - 1;
        var base8 = new StringBuilder();
        var rem   = value.Length % 3;
        if (rem == 0)
            rem = 3;
        var Base = 0;
        while (rem != 0)
        {
            Base <<= 8;
            Base +=  value[index--];
            rem--;
        }
        base8.Append(Convert.ToString(Base, 8));
        while (index >= 0)
        {
            Base = (value[index] << 16) + (value[index - 1] << 8) + value[index - 2];
            base8.Append(Convert.ToString(Base, 8).PadLeft(8, '0'));
            index -= 3;
        }
        return base8.ToString();
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Boolean value converted from the byte at a specified position.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static bool ToBool(this byte[] value, int pos = 0)
    {
        return BitConverter.ToBoolean(value, pos);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Character value converted from the byte at a specified position.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static char ToChar(this byte[] value, int pos = 0)
    {
        return BitConverter.ToChar(value, pos);
    }
    public static unsafe byte ToByte(this byte[] value, int pos = 0)
    {
        byte bv;
        fixed (byte* bp = value)
        {
            var bpp = bp + pos;
            bv = *bpp;
            return bv;
        }
    }
    public static unsafe sbyte ToSByte(this byte[] value, int pos = 0)
    {
        fixed (byte* bp = value)
        {
            var ptr = bp + pos;
            if (pos % 2 == 0)
                return *(sbyte*) ptr;
            return (sbyte) *ptr;
        }
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Short value converted from the byte at a specified position.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static short ToShort(this byte[] value, int pos = 0)
    {
        return BitConverter.ToInt16(PadShort(value), pos);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Unsigned Short value converted from the byte at a specified position.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static ushort ToUShort(this byte[] value, int pos = 0)
    {
        return BitConverter.ToUInt16(PadShort(value), pos);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Integer value converted from the byte at a specified position.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static int ToInt(this byte[] value, int pos = 0)
    {
        return BitConverter.ToInt32(PadInt(value), pos);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Unsigned Integer value converted from the byte at a specified position.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static uint ToUInt(this byte[] value, int pos = 0)
    {
        return BitConverter.ToUInt32(PadInt(value), pos);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Long value converted from the byte at a specified position.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static long ToLong(this byte[] value, int pos = 0)
    {
        return BitConverter.ToInt64(PadLong(value), pos);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Unsigned Long value converted from the byte at a specified position.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static ulong ToULong(this byte[] value, int pos = 0)
    {
        return BitConverter.ToUInt64(PadLong(value), pos);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a signed 128 Bit value.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static Int128 ToInt128(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value.Length > 16)
            throw new ArgumentException($"Value length {value.Length} exceeds limit. {16}");
        return new Int128(value);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Unsigned 128 Bit value.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static UInt128 ToUInt128(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value.Length > 16)
            throw new ArgumentException($"Value length {value.Length} exceeds limit. {16}");
        return new UInt128(value);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a signed 256 Bit value.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static Int256 ToInt256(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value.Length > 32)
            throw new ArgumentException($"Value length {value.Length} exceeds limit. {32}");
        return new Int256(value);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Unsigned 256 Bit value.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static UInt256 ToUInt256(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value.Length > 32)
            throw new ArgumentException($"Value length {value.Length} exceeds limit. {32}");
        return new UInt256(value);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a signed 512 Bit value.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static Int512 ToInt512(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value.Length > 64)
            throw new ArgumentException($"Value length {value.Length} exceeds limit. {64}");
        return new Int512(value);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Unsigned 512 Bit value.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static UInt512 ToUInt512(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value.Length > 64)
            throw new ArgumentException($"Value length {value.Length} exceeds limit. {64}");
        return new UInt512(value);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a signed 1024 Bit value.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static xIntX ToInt1024(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value.Length > 128)
            throw new ArgumentException($"Value length {value.Length} exceeds limit. {128}");
        return new xIntX(value, 1024, false);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Unsigned 1024 Bit value.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static xIntX ToUInt1024(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value.Length > 128)
            throw new ArgumentException($"Value length {value.Length} exceeds limit. {128}");
        return new xIntX(value, 1024, true);
    }
    public static xIntX ToxIntX(this byte[] value)
    {
        var bl = value.Length * 8;
        return new xIntX(value, bl, false);
    }
    public static BigInteger ToBigInteger(this byte[] value)
    {
        return new BigInteger(value);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Float value converted from the byte at a specified position.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static float ToFloat(this byte[] value, int pos = 0)
    {
        return BitConverter.ToSingle(PadInt(value), pos);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Double value converted from the byte at a specified position.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static double ToDouble(this byte[] value, int pos = 0)
    {
        return BitConverter.ToDouble(PadLong(value), pos);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Decimal value converted from the byte at a specified position.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static unsafe decimal ToDecimal(this byte[] value, int pos = 0)
    {
        decimal dv;
        fixed (byte* bp = value)
        {
            var bpp = bp + pos;
            dv = *(decimal*) bpp;
        }
        return dv;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a String value converted from the byte at a specified position.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static string ToString(this byte[] value, int pos = 0)
    {
        return BitConverter.ToString(value, pos);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Secure String value converted from the byte array.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static SecureString ToSecureString(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("Value cannot be null.");
        var securestring = new SecureString();
        var asCharA      = value.ToCharArray();
        foreach (var c in asCharA)
            securestring.AppendChar(c);
        return securestring;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Boolean array converted from a byte array.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static bool[] ToBooleanArray(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("Value cannot be null.");
        var arr = new bool[value.Length];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, arr, 0, value.Length);
        return arr;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Character array converted from a byte array.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static char[] ToCharArray(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("Value cannot be null.");
        var arr = new char[value.Length];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, arr, 0, value.Length);
        return arr;
    }
    public static byte[] ToByteArray(this byte[] value, int index = 0, int length = -1)
    {
        if (length == -1)
            length = value.Length - index;
        var ba = new byte[length];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, index, ba, 0, length);
        return ba;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a SByte array converted from a byte array.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static sbyte[] ToSByteArray(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("Value cannot be null.");
        var arr = new sbyte[value.Length];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, arr, 0, value.Length);
        return arr;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Short array converted from a byte array.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static short[] ToShortArray(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("Value cannot be null.");
        var arr = new short[value.Length / 2];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, arr, 0, value.Length);
        return arr;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Unsigned Short array converted from a byte array.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static ushort[] ToUShortArray(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("Value cannot be null.");
        var arr = new ushort[value.Length / 2];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, arr, 0, value.Length);
        return arr;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Integer array converted from a byte array.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static int[] ToIntArray(this byte[] value, bool pad = false)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("Value cannot be null.");
        if (pad)
            value = PadInt(value);
        var arr = new int[value.Length / 4];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, arr, 0, value.Length);
        return arr;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Unsigned Integer array converted from a byte array.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static uint[] ToUIntArray(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("Value cannot be null.");
        var arr = new uint[value.Length / 4];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, arr, 0, value.Length);
        return arr;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Long array converted from the byte array.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static long[] ToLongArray(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("Value cannot be null.");
        var arr = new long[value.Length / 8];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, arr, 0, value.Length);
        return arr;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Unsigned Long array converted from a byte array.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static ulong[] ToULongArray(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("Value cannot be null.");
        var arr = new ulong[value.Length / 8];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, arr, 0, value.Length);
        return arr;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Float array converted from a byte array.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static float[] ToFloatArray(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("Value cannot be null.");
        if (value.Length % 4 != 0)
            throw new Exception("Byte Object length must be a multiple of 4");
        var arr = new List<float>();
        for (var i = 0; i < value.Length; i += 4)
        {
            var t = new[] {value[i], value[i + 1], value[i + 2], value[i + 3]};
            arr.Add(t.ToFloat());
        }
        return arr.ToArray();
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Double array converted from a byte array.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static double[] ToDoubleArray(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("Value cannot be null.");
        if (value.Length % 8 != 0)
            throw new Exception("Byte Object length must be a multiple of 8");
        var arr = new List<double>();
        for (var i = 0; i < value.Length; i += 8)
        {
            var t = new[]
            {
                value[i], value[i + 1], value[i + 2], value[i + 3], value[i + 4], value[i + 5], value[i + 6],
                value[i           + 7]
            };
            arr.Add(t.ToDouble());
        }
        return arr.ToArray();
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a decimal array converted from a byte array.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static decimal[] ToDecimalArray(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("Value cannot be null.");
        if (value.Length % 16 != 0)
            throw new Exception("Byte Object length must be a multiple of 16");
        var arr = new List<decimal>();
        for (var i = 0; i < value.Length; i += 16)
        {
            var t = new[]
            {
                value[i], value[i + 1], value[i + 2], value[i + 3], value[i + 4], value[i  + 5], value[i  + 6],
                value[i           + 7], value[i + 8], value[i + 9], value[i + 10], value[i + 11], value[i + 12],
                value[i           + 13],
                value[i           + 14], value[i + 15]
            };
            arr.Add(t.ToDecimal());
        }
        return arr.ToArray();
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Single String converted from the byte array.
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static string ToSingleString(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("Value cannot be null.");
        var enc = GetEncoding(value);
        switch (enc)
        {
            case ASCIIEncoding AsciiEncoding:
                return Encoding.ASCII.GetString(value);
            case UnicodeEncoding UnicodeEncoding:
                return Encoding.Unicode.GetString(value);
            case UTF32Encoding Utf32Encoding:
                return Encoding.UTF32.GetString(value);
            case UTF7Encoding Utf7Encoding:
                return Encoding.UTF7.GetString(value);
            case UTF8Encoding Utf8Encoding:
                return Encoding.UTF8.GetString(value);
            default:
                return Encoding.ASCII.GetString(value);
        }
    }
    private static Encoding GetEncoding(byte[] Data)
    {
        if (Data == null)
            throw new Exception("Array cannot be null.");
        if (Data.Length < 2)
            return Encoding.Default;
        if (Data[0] == 0xff && Data[1] == 0xfe)
            return Encoding.Unicode;
        if (Data[0] == 0xfe && Data[1] == 0xff)
            return Encoding.BigEndianUnicode;
        if (Data.Length < 3)
            return Encoding.Default;
        if (Data[0] == 0xef && Data[1] == 0xbb && Data[2] == 0xbf)
            return Encoding.UTF8;
        if (Data[0] == 0x2b && Data[1] == 0x2f && Data[2] == 0x76)
            return Encoding.UTF7;
        if (Data.Length < 4)
            return Encoding.Default;
        if (Data[0] == 0xff && Data[1] == 0xfe && Data[2] == 0 && Data[3] == 0)
            return Encoding.UTF32;
        return Encoding.Default;
    }
    public static bool ToBool(this string value)
    {
        bool result = default;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value))
            bool.TryParse(value, out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static char ToChar(this string value)
    {
        char result = default;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value))
            char.TryParse(value, out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static byte ToByte(this string value)
    {
        byte result = default;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value))
            byte.TryParse(value, out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static sbyte ToSByte(this string value)
    {
        sbyte result = default;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value))
            sbyte.TryParse(value, out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static short ToInt16(this string value)
    {
        short result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value))
            short.TryParse(value, out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static ushort ToUInt16(this string value)
    {
        ushort result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value))
            ushort.TryParse(value, out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static int ToInt32(this string value)
    {
        var result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value))
            int.TryParse(value, out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static uint ToUInt32(this string value)
    {
        uint result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value))
            uint.TryParse(value, out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static long ToInt64(this string value)
    {
        long result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value))
            long.TryParse(value, out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static ulong ToUInt64(this string value)
    {
        ulong result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value))
            ulong.TryParse(value, out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static float ToFloat(this string value)
    {
        float result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value))
            float.TryParse(value, out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static double ToDouble(this string value)
    {
        double result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value))
            double.TryParse(value, out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static decimal ToDecimal(this string value)
    {
        decimal result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value))
            decimal.TryParse(value, out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static bool ToBool(this char value)
    {
        bool result = default;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value.ToString()))
            bool.TryParse(value.ToString(), out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static byte ToByte(this char value)
    {
        byte result = default;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value.ToString()))
            byte.TryParse(value.ToString(), out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static sbyte ToSByte(this char value)
    {
        sbyte result = default;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value.ToString()))
            sbyte.TryParse(value.ToString(), out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static short ToInt16(this char value)
    {
        short result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value.ToString()))
            short.TryParse(value.ToString(), out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static ushort ToUInt16(this char value)
    {
        ushort result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value.ToString()))
            ushort.TryParse(value.ToString(), out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static int ToInt32(this char value)
    {
        var result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value.ToString()))
            int.TryParse(value.ToString(), out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static uint ToUInt32(this char value)
    {
        uint result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value.ToString()))
            uint.TryParse(value.ToString(), out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static long ToInt64(this char value)
    {
        long result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value.ToString()))
            long.TryParse(value.ToString(), out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static ulong ToUInt64(this char value)
    {
        ulong result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value.ToString()))
            ulong.TryParse(value.ToString(), out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static float ToFloat(this char value)
    {
        float result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value.ToString()))
            float.TryParse(value.ToString(), out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static double ToDouble(this char value)
    {
        double result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value.ToString()))
            double.TryParse(value.ToString(), out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static decimal ToDecimal(this char value)
    {
        decimal result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value.ToString()))
            decimal.TryParse(value.ToString(), out result);
        return result;
    }
    private static byte[] PadLong(byte[] ba)
    {
        var s = ba.Length % 8;
        switch (s)
        {
            case 0:
                break;
            case 1:
                Array.Resize(ref ba, ba.Length + 7);
                ba[ba.Length - 1] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 2] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 3] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 4] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 5] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 6] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 7] = 0;
                break;
            case 2:
                Array.Resize(ref ba, ba.Length + 6);
                ba[ba.Length - 1] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 2] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 3] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 4] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 5] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 6] = 0;
                break;
            case 3:
                Array.Resize(ref ba, ba.Length + 5);
                ba[ba.Length - 1] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 2] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 3] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 4] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 5] = 0;
                break;
            case 4:
                Array.Resize(ref ba, ba.Length + 4);
                ba[ba.Length - 1] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 2] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 3] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 4] = 0;
                break;
            case 5:
                Array.Resize(ref ba, ba.Length + 3);
                ba[ba.Length - 1] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 2] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 3] = 0;
                break;
            case 6:
                Array.Resize(ref ba, ba.Length + 2);
                ba[ba.Length - 1] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 2] = 0;
                break;
            case 7:
                Array.Resize(ref ba, ba.Length + 1);
                ba[ba.Length - 1] = 0;
                break;
        }
        return ba;
    }
    private static byte[] PadInt(byte[] ba)
    {
        var s = ba.Length % 4;
        switch (s)
        {
            case 0:
                break;
            case 1:
                Array.Resize(ref ba, ba.Length + 3);
                ba[ba.Length - 1] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 2] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 3] = 0;
                break;
            case 2:
                Array.Resize(ref ba, ba.Length + 2);
                ba[ba.Length - 1] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 2] = 0;
                break;
            case 3:
                Array.Resize(ref ba, ba.Length + 1);
                ba[ba.Length - 1] = 0;
                break;
        }
        return ba;
    }
    private static byte[] PadShort(byte[] ba)
    {
        var s = ba.Length % 2;
        switch (s)
        {
            case 0:
                break;
            case 1:
                Array.Resize(ref ba, ba.Length + 1);
                ba[ba.Length - 1] = 0;
                break;
        }
        return ba;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Raw byte array from string
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] GetBytesFromString(this string str)
    {
        if (str == null)
            throw new ArgumentNullException("string cannot be null.");
        if (str.Length == 0)
            return Array.Empty<byte>();
        var bytes = new byte[str.Length * sizeof(char)];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(str.ToCharArray(), 0, bytes, 0, bytes.Length);
        return bytes;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Raw string from byte array
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static string GetStringFromBytes(this byte[] bytes)
    {
        if (bytes == null)
            throw new ArgumentNullException("bytes cannot be null.");
        if (bytes.Length % _charSize != 0)
            throw new ArgumentException("Invalid bytes length");
        if (bytes.Length == 0)
            return string.Empty;
        var chars = new char[bytes.Length / sizeof(char)];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(bytes, 0, chars, 0, bytes.Length);
        return new string(chars);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Takes a byte array and converts it to a non-serialized object
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static T NonSerialByteArrayToObject<T>(this byte[] data)
    {
        var target = (T) Activator.CreateInstance(typeof(T), null);
        using (var ms = new MemoryStream(data))
        {
            byte[] ba    = null;
            var    infos = typeof(T).GetFields(BindingFlags.Public | BindingFlags.NonPublic | BindingFlags.Instance);
            foreach (var info in infos)
            {
                ba = new byte[sizeof(int)];
                ms.Read(ba, 0, sizeof(int));
                var size = BitConverter.ToInt32(ba, 0);
                ba = new byte[size];
                ms.Read(ba, 0, size);
                var bf = new BinaryFormatter();
                using (var ms1 = new MemoryStream(ba))
                {
                    info.SetValue(target, bf.Deserialize(ms1));
                }
            }
        }
        return target;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Takes a non-serialized object and converts it into a byte array
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] SerializeObjectNonSerial<T>(T obj)
    {
        using (var ms = new MemoryStream())
        {
            var infos = obj.GetType().GetFields(BindingFlags.Public | BindingFlags.NonPublic | BindingFlags.Instance);
            foreach (var info in infos)
            {
                var bf = new BinaryFormatter();
                using (var inMStream = new MemoryStream())
                {
                    var v = info.GetValue(obj);
                    if (v != null)
                    {
                        bf.Serialize(inMStream, v);
                        var ba = inMStream.ToArray();
                        ms.Write(ba.Length.GetBytes(), 0, sizeof(int));
                        ms.Write(ba,                   0, ba.Length);
                    }
                }
            }
            return ms.ToArray();
        }
    }
    private static byte[] RawReferenceValueTypeObjectGetBytes<T>(T obj)
    {
        var type  = obj.GetType();
        var infos = type.GetFields(BindingFlags.Public | BindingFlags.NonPublic | BindingFlags.Instance | BindingFlags.Static | BindingFlags.FlattenHierarchy);
        if (infos.Length > 0)
            using (var ms = new RawMemoryStreamWriter())
            {
                foreach (var info in infos)
                {
                    var v = info.GetValue(obj);
                    if (v != null && !IsValidPrimitive(v.GetType()))
                    {
                        var iba = RawReferenceValueTypeObjectGetBytes(v);
                        ms.Write(iba);
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        if (v != null)
                            ms.Write(v);
                    }
                }
                var p = type.GetNestedTypes(BindingFlags.Public | BindingFlags.NonPublic | BindingFlags.Instance | BindingFlags.Static | BindingFlags.FlattenHierarchy);
                if (p.Length > 0)
                    foreach (var t in p)
                    {
                        var af = GetAllFields(t);
                        foreach (var infon in af)
                            if (infon.IsStatic)
                            {
                                var vi = infon.GetValue(null);
                                if (vi != null)
                                    ms.Write(vi);
                            }
                    }
                if (ms.BaseStream.Length == 0)
                    throw new Exception("Value and Reference Types, no meaningful data can be found.");
                return ms.BaseStream.ToArray();
            }
        return null;
    }
    private static IEnumerable<FieldInfo> GetAllFields(Type type)
    {
        return type.GetNestedTypes().SelectMany(GetAllFields)
            .Concat(type.GetFields());
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Serialize a serializable object
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] SerializeObject(object obj)
    {
        using (var stream = new MemoryStream())
        {
            Formatter.Serialize(stream, obj);
            return stream.ToArray();
        }
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     DeSerialize a serialized object
    ///     (GetBytesClass.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static T DeserializeObject<T>(byte[] bytes)
    {
        using (var stream = new MemoryStream(bytes))
        {
            var result = (T) Formatter.Deserialize(stream);
            return result;
        }
    }
}

Converters.cs

General Data Converters

Obsolete: Use GetBytesClass.cs instead

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.IO;
using System.Linq;
using System.Numerics;
using System.Reflection;
using System.Runtime.InteropServices;
using System.Runtime.Serialization.Formatters.Binary;
using System.Security;
using System.Text;
public static class Converters
{
    private static readonly int _charSize = sizeof(char);
    public static bool IsValidPrimitive(Type type)
    {
        switch (Type.GetTypeCode(type))
        {
            case TypeCode.Boolean:
            case TypeCode.Char:
            case TypeCode.SByte:
            case TypeCode.Byte:
            case TypeCode.Int16:
            case TypeCode.UInt16:
            case TypeCode.Int32:
            case TypeCode.UInt32:
            case TypeCode.Single:
            case TypeCode.Object:
            case TypeCode.DateTime:
            case TypeCode.String:
            case TypeCode.Int64:
            case TypeCode.UInt64:
            case TypeCode.Double:
            case TypeCode.Decimal:
                return true;
            default:
                return false;
        }
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a single boolean object
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] GetBytes(this bool value)
    {
        return new[] {value ? (byte) 1 : (byte) 0};
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from an array of boolean objects
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] GetBytes(this bool[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (bool[]) object cannot be null.");
        var seed = new byte[0];
        return value.Aggregate(seed, (Current, bl) => Current.Add(bl.GetBytes()));
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a single byte object
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] GetBytes(this byte value)
    {
        return new[] {value};
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a sbyte short object
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    [SecuritySafeCritical]
    public static unsafe byte[] GetBytes(this sbyte value)
    {
        var numArray = new byte[1];
        fixed (byte* ptr = numArray)
        {
            *(sbyte*) ptr = value;
        }
        return numArray;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from an array of sbyte objects
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] GetBytes(this sbyte[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (sbyte[]) object cannot be null.");
        var numArray = new byte[value.Length];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, numArray, 0, numArray.Length);
        return numArray;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a single short object
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    [SecuritySafeCritical]
    public static unsafe byte[] GetBytes(this short value)
    {
        var numArray = new byte[2];
        fixed (byte* ptr = numArray)
        {
            *(short*) ptr = value;
        }
        return numArray;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from an array of short objects
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] GetBytes(this short[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (short[]) object cannot be null.");
        var numArray = new byte[value.Length * 2];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, numArray, 0, numArray.Length);
        return numArray;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a single unsigned short object
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] GetBytes(this ushort value)
    {
        return ((short) value).GetBytes();
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from an array of unsigned short objects
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] GetBytes(this ushort[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (ushort[]) object cannot be null.");
        var numArray = new byte[value.Length * 2];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, numArray, 0, numArray.Length);
        return numArray;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a single character object
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] GetBytes(this char value)
    {
        return ((short) value).GetBytes();
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from an array of character objects
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] GetBytes(this char[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (char[]) object cannot be null.");
        var numArray = new byte[value.Length * 2];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, numArray, 0, numArray.Length);
        return numArray;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a single integer object
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    [SecuritySafeCritical]
    public static unsafe byte[] GetBytes(this int value)
    {
        var numArray = new byte[4];
        fixed (byte* ptr = numArray)
        {
            *(int*) ptr = value;
        }
        return numArray;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a single integer object with index and count
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] GetBytes(this int value, int sIndex, int count)
    {
        if (count > 4)
            throw new Exception("Size cannot exceed 4 bytes.");
        return value.GetBytes().SubArray(sIndex, count);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from an array of integer objects
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] GetBytes(this int[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (int[]) object cannot be null.");
        var numArray = new byte[value.Length * 4];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, numArray, 0, numArray.Length);
        return numArray;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a single unsigned integer object
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] GetBytes(this uint value)
    {
        return ((int) value).GetBytes();
    }
    public static byte[] GetBytes(this uint value, int sIndex = 0, int count = 4)
    {
        if (count > 4)
            throw new Exception("Size cannot exceed 4 bytes.");
        return value.GetBytes().SubArray(sIndex, count);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from an array of unsigned integer objects
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] GetBytes(this uint[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (uint[]) object cannot be null.");
        var numArray = new byte[value.Length * 4];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, numArray, 0, numArray.Length);
        return numArray;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a single long object
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static unsafe byte[] GetBytes(this long value)
    {
        var numArray = new byte[8];
        fixed (byte* ptr = numArray)
        {
            *(long*) ptr = value;
        }
        return numArray;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from an array of long objects
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] GetBytes(this long[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (long[]) object cannot be null.");
        var numArray = new byte[value.Length * 8];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, numArray, 0, numArray.Length);
        return numArray;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from an array of long objects with index and count
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] GetBytes(this long value, int sIndex = 0, int count = 8)
    {
        if (count > 8)
            throw new Exception("Size cannot exceed 8 bytes.");
        return value.GetBytes().SubArray(sIndex, count);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a single unsigned long object
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] GetBytes(this ulong value)
    {
        return ((long) value).GetBytes();
    }
    public static byte[] GetBytes(this ulong value, int sIndex = 0, int count = 8)
    {
        if (count > 8)
            throw new Exception("Size cannot exceed 8 bytes.");
        return ((long) value).GetBytes().SubArray(sIndex, count);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from an array of unsigned long objects
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] GetBytes(this ulong[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (ulong[]) object cannot be null.");
        var numArray = new byte[value.Length * 8];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, numArray, 0, numArray.Length);
        return numArray;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a single float object
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    [SecuritySafeCritical]
    public static unsafe byte[] GetBytes(this float value)
    {
        return (*(int*) &value).GetBytes();
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from an array of float objects
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] GetBytes(this float[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (float[]) object cannot be null.");
        var numArray = new byte[value.Length * 4];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, numArray, 0, numArray.Length);
        return numArray;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a single double object
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static unsafe byte[] GetBytes(this double value)
    {
        return (*(long*) &value).GetBytes();
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from an array of double objects
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] GetBytes(this double[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (double[]) object cannot be null.");
        var numArray = new byte[value.Length * 8];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, numArray, 0, numArray.Length);
        return numArray;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a single decimal object
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static unsafe byte[] GetBytes(this decimal value)
    {
        var array = new byte[16];
        fixed (byte* bp = array)
        {
            *(decimal*) bp = value;
        }
        return array;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a single DateTime object
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] GetBytes(this DateTime value)
    {
        return value.Ticks.GetBytes();
    }
    public static byte[] GetBytes(this DateTime[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (DateTime[]) object cannot be null.");
        var sodt = 0;
        unsafe
        {
            sodt = sizeof(DateTime);
        }
        var numArray = new byte[value.Length * sodt];
        for (var i = 0; i < value.Length; i++)
        {
            var dba = value[i].GetBytes();
            Buffer.BlockCopy(dba, 0, numArray, i * sodt, sodt);
        }
        return numArray;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from an array of decimal objects
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] GetBytes(this decimal[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (decimal[]) object cannot be null.");
        var numArray = new byte[value.Length * 16];
        for (var i = 0; i < value.Length; i++)
        {
            var dba = value[i].GetBytes();
            Buffer.BlockCopy(dba, 0, numArray, i * 16, 16);
        }
        return numArray;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a single string object using a specified Encoding.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] GetBytes(this string value, Encoding enc = null)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (string) object cannot be null.");
        if (enc == null)
            return Encoding.ASCII.GetBytes(value);
        switch (enc)
        {
            case ASCIIEncoding AsciiEncoding:
            {
                return Encoding.ASCII.GetBytes(value);
            }
            case UnicodeEncoding UnicodeEncoding:
            {
                var ba  = Encoding.Unicode.GetBytes(value);
                var pre = new byte[] {0xff, 0xfe};
                var ra  = new byte[ba.Length + 2];
                Array.Copy(pre, 0, ra, 0, 2);
                Array.Copy(ba,  0, ra, 2, ba.Length);
                return ra;
            }
            case UTF32Encoding Utf32Encoding:
            {
                var ba  = Encoding.UTF32.GetBytes(value);
                var pre = new byte[] {0xff, 0xfe, 0, 0};
                var ra  = new byte[ba.Length + 4];
                Array.Copy(pre, 0, ra, 0, 4);
                Array.Copy(ba,  0, ra, 4, ba.Length);
                return ra;
            }
            case UTF7Encoding Utf7Encoding:
            {
                var ba  = Encoding.UTF7.GetBytes(value);
                var pre = new byte[] {0x2b, 0x2f, 0x76};
                var ra  = new byte[ba.Length + 3];
                Array.Copy(pre, 0, ra, 0, 3);
                Array.Copy(ba,  0, ra, 3, ba.Length);
                return ra;
            }
            case UTF8Encoding Utf8Encoding:
            {
                var ba  = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(value);
                var pre = new byte[] {0xef, 0xbb, 0xbf};
                var ra  = new byte[ba.Length + 3];
                Array.Copy(pre, 0, ra, 0, 3);
                Array.Copy(ba,  0, ra, 3, ba.Length);
                return ra;
            }
            default:
                return Encoding.ASCII.GetBytes(value);
        }
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a array of string objects.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] GetBytes(this string[] value, Encoding enc = null)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (string[]) object cannot be null.");
        var numArray  = new byte[value.Where(ss => ss != null).Sum(ss => ss.Length)];
        var dstOffset = 0;
        foreach (var str in value)
            if (str != null)
            {
                Buffer.BlockCopy(str.GetBytes(enc), 0, numArray, dstOffset, str.Length);
                dstOffset += str.Length;
            }
        return numArray;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from an array of string objects.??
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] GetBytes1(this string[] value, Encoding enc = null)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (string[]) object cannot be null.");
        var tb        = value[0].GetBytes(enc);
        var cs        = tb.Length / value[0].Length;
        var numArray  = new byte[value.Where(ss => ss != null).Sum(ss => ss.Length) * cs];
        var dstOffset = 0;
        foreach (var str in value)
            if (str != null)
            {
                var buf = str.GetBytes(enc);
                Buffer.BlockCopy(buf, 0, numArray, dstOffset, buf.Length);
                dstOffset += buf.Length;
            }
        return numArray;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from an array of secure string objects
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] GetBytes(this SecureString[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (SecureString[]) object cannot be null.");
        var source = new List<byte[]>();
        foreach (var secureString in value)
            if (secureString != null)
            {
                var byteArray = secureString.GetBytes();
                source.Add(byteArray.CloneTo());
            }
        var seed = new byte[source.Sum(ba => ba.Length)];
        return source.Aggregate(seed, (Current, ba) => Current.Add(ba));
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Get Bytes from a single secure string object using a specified encoding
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static unsafe byte[] GetBytes(this SecureString value, Encoding enc = null)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("GetBytes (SecureString) object cannot be null.");
        if (enc == null)
            enc = Encoding.Default;
        var maxLength = enc.GetMaxByteCount(value.Length);
        var bytes     = IntPtr.Zero;
        var str       = IntPtr.Zero;
        try
        {
            bytes = Marshal.AllocHGlobal(maxLength);
            str   = Marshal.SecureStringToBSTR(value);
            var chars  = (char*) str.ToPointer();
            var bptr   = (byte*) bytes.ToPointer();
            var len    = enc.GetBytes(chars, value.Length, bptr, maxLength);
            var _bytes = new byte[len];
            for (var i = 0; i < len; ++i)
            {
                _bytes[i] = *bptr;
                bptr++;
            }
            return _bytes;
        }
        finally
        {
            if (bytes != IntPtr.Zero)
                Marshal.FreeHGlobal(bytes);
            if (str != IntPtr.Zero)
                Marshal.ZeroFreeBSTR(str);
        }
    }
    public static byte[] GetBytes(this xIntX[] value)
    {
        var r = Array.Empty<byte>();
        if (value != null)
            for (var i = 0; i < value.Length; ++i)
            {
                var lb = value[i].ToByteArray();
                Array.Resize(ref r, r.Length + lb.Length);
                r = r.Add(lb);
            }
        return r;
    }
    public static byte[] GetBytes(this BigInteger[] value)
    {
        var r = Array.Empty<byte>();
        if (value != null)
            for (var i = 0; i < value.Length; ++i)
            {
                var lb = value[i].ToByteArray();
                Array.Resize(ref r, r.Length + lb.Length);
                r = r.Add(lb);
            }
        return r;
    }

    /// <summary>
    ///     Gets list of byte arrays from a list of objects of type T.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static List<byte[]> GetBytesObject<T>(this List<T> value)
    {
        return value.Select(o => o.GetBytes()).ToList();
    }
    
    /// <summary>
    ///     Gets a single object of type T from a byte array.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static T ToObject<T>(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("value cannot be null.");
        using (var stream = new MemoryStream(value))
        {
            var formatter = new BinaryFormatter();
            var result    = (T) formatter.Deserialize(stream);
            return result;
        }
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Gets an array of objects of type T from a list of byte arrays.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static T[] ToObject<T>(this List<byte[]> value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("value cannot be null.");
        if (value.Count == 0)
            throw new Exception("value is empty.");
        var lst = new List<T>();
        foreach (var o in value)
            lst.Add(o.ToObject<T>());
        return lst.ToArray();
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Converts a hex string to a byte array.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] HexToBytes(this string hex)
    {
        if (hex.Length % 2 != 0)
            throw new Exception($"Incomplete Hex string {hex}");
        if (!hex.ContainsOnly("0123456789abcdefABCDEFxX"))
            throw new Exception("Error: hexNumber cannot contain characters other than 0-9,a-f,A-F, or xX");
        hex = hex.ToUpper();
        if (hex.IndexOf("0X", StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase) != -1)
            hex = hex.Substring(2);
        return Enumerable.Range(0, hex.Length).Where(x => x % 2 == 0).Select(x => Convert.ToByte(hex.Substring(x, 2), 16)).ToArray();
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Converts a byte array to a hex string.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static string ToHexString(this byte[] bytes)
    {
        var sb = new StringBuilder();
        foreach (var b in bytes)
            sb.Append(b.ToString("X2"));
        return sb.ToString();
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Converts a hex string to an unsigned long.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static unsafe ulong FromHexStringTo(this string value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("Value cannot be null.");
        if (value.Length == 0)
            return 0;
        var ba = value.HexToBytes();
        ba = ba.Invert();
        if (ba.Length > 8)
            throw new Exception("Maximum bit width is limited to 64 bits.");
        var len = ba.Length;
        switch (len)
        {
            case 1:
                fixed (byte* ptr = &ba[0])
                {
                    return *ptr;
                }
            case 2:
                fixed (byte* ptr = &ba[0])
                {
                    return *ptr | ((ulong) ptr[1] << 8);
                }
            case 3:
                fixed (byte* ptr = &ba[0])
                {
                    return *ptr | ((ulong) ptr[1] << 8) | ((ulong) ptr[2] << 16);
                }
            case 4:
                fixed (byte* ptr = &ba[0])
                {
                    return *ptr | ((ulong) ptr[1] << 8) | ((ulong) ptr[2] << 16) | ((ulong) ptr[3] << 24);
                }
            case 5:
                fixed (byte* ptr = &ba[0])
                {
                    return *ptr | ((ulong) ptr[1] << 8) | ((ulong) ptr[2] << 16) | ((ulong) ptr[3] << 24) | ((ulong) ptr[4] << 32);
                }
            case 6:
                fixed (byte* ptr = &ba[0])
                {
                    return *ptr | ((ulong) ptr[1] << 8) | ((ulong) ptr[2] << 16) | ((ulong) ptr[3] << 24) | ((ptr[4] | ((ulong) ptr[5] << 8)) << 32);
                }
            case 7:
                fixed (byte* ptr = &ba[0])
                {
                    return *ptr | ((ulong) ptr[1] << 8) | ((ulong) ptr[2] << 16) | ((ulong) ptr[3] << 24) | ((ptr[4] | ((ulong) ptr[5] << 8) | ((ulong) ptr[6] << 16)) << 32);
                }
            case 8:
                fixed (byte* ptr = &ba[0])
                {
                    return *ptr | ((ulong) ptr[1]                                                              << 8) | ((ulong) ptr[2] << 16) | ((ulong) ptr[3] << 24) |
                           ((ptr[4] | ((ulong) ptr[5] << 8) | ((ulong) ptr[6] << 16) | ((ulong) ptr[7] << 24)) << 32);
                }
            default:
                return 0;
        }
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Converts a byte array to a hex string.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static string ToBinaryString(this byte[] bytes)
    {
        var len = bytes.Length;
        var sb  = new StringBuilder();
        for (var i = 0; i < len; i++)
            sb.Append(Convert.ToString(bytes[i], 2).PadLeft(8, '0'));
        return sb.ToString();
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Converts a binary string to an unsigned long.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static ulong FromBinaryStringTo(this string value)
    {
        var reversed = value.Reverse().ToArray();
        var num      = 0ul;
        for (var p = 0; p < reversed.Count(); p++)
        {
            if (reversed[p] != '1')
                continue;
            num += (ulong) Math.Pow(2, p);
        }
        return num;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Converts a binary string to a byte array.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static byte[] GetBytesFromBinaryString(this string value)
    {
        if (!value.ContainsOnly("01"))
            throw new Exception($"Error: Binary string can only contains 0's and 1's. Value:{value}");
        var len   = value.Length;
        var bLen  = (int) Math.Ceiling(len / 8d);
        var bytes = new byte[bLen];
        var size  = 8;
        for (var i = 1; i <= bLen; i++)
        {
            var idx = len - 8 * i;
            if (idx < 0)
            {
                size = 8 + idx;
                idx  = 0;
            }
            bytes[bLen - i] = Convert.ToByte(value.Substring(idx, size), 2);
        }
        return bytes;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Converts a byte array to a octal string.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static string ToOctalString(this byte[] value)
    {
        value = value.Invert();
        var index = value.Length - 1;
        var base8 = new StringBuilder();
        var rem   = value.Length % 3;
        if (rem == 0)
            rem = 3;
        var Base = 0;
        while (rem != 0)
        {
            Base <<= 8;
            Base +=  value[index--];
            rem--;
        }
        base8.Append(Convert.ToString(Base, 8));
        while (index >= 0)
        {
            Base = (value[index] << 16) + (value[index - 1] << 8) + value[index - 2];
            base8.Append(Convert.ToString(Base, 8).PadLeft(8, '0'));
            index -= 3;
        }
        return base8.ToString();
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Boolean value converted from the byte at a specified position.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static bool ToBool(this byte[] value, int pos = 0)
    {
        return BitConverter.ToBoolean(value, pos);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Character value converted from the byte at a specified position.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static char ToChar(this byte[] value, int pos = 0)
    {
        return BitConverter.ToChar(value, pos);
    }
    public static unsafe byte ToByte(this byte[] value, int pos = 0)
    {
        byte bv;
        fixed (byte* bp = value)
        {
            var bpp = bp + pos;
            bv = *bpp;
            return bv;
        }
    }
    public static unsafe sbyte ToSByte(this byte[] value, int pos = 0)
    {
        fixed (byte* bp = value)
        {
            var ptr = bp + pos;
            if (pos % 2 == 0)
                return *(sbyte*) ptr;
            return (sbyte) *ptr;
        }
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Short value converted from the byte at a specified position.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static short ToShort(this byte[] value, int pos = 0)
    {
        return BitConverter.ToInt16(PadShort(value), pos);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Unsigned Short value converted from the byte at a specified position.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static ushort ToUShort(this byte[] value, int pos = 0)
    {
        return BitConverter.ToUInt16(PadShort(value), pos);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Integer value converted from the byte at a specified position.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static int ToInt(this byte[] value, int pos = 0)
    {
        return BitConverter.ToInt32(PadInt(value), pos);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Unsigned Integer value converted from the byte at a specified position.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static uint ToUInt(this byte[] value, int pos = 0)
    {
        return BitConverter.ToUInt32(PadInt(value), pos);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Long value converted from the byte at a specified position.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static long ToLong(this byte[] value, int pos = 0)
    {
        return BitConverter.ToInt64(PadLong(value), pos);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Unsigned Long value converted from the byte at a specified position.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static ulong ToULong(this byte[] value, int pos = 0)
    {
        return BitConverter.ToUInt64(PadLong(value), pos);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a signed 128 Bit value.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static Int128 ToInt128(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value.Length > 16)
            throw new ArgumentException($"Value length {value.Length} exceeds limit. {16}");
        return new Int128(value);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Unsigned 128 Bit value.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static UInt128 ToUInt128(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value.Length > 16)
            throw new ArgumentException($"Value length {value.Length} exceeds limit. {16}");
        return new UInt128(value);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a signed 256 Bit value.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static Int256 ToInt256(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value.Length > 32)
            throw new ArgumentException($"Value length {value.Length} exceeds limit. {32}");
        return new Int256(value);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Unsigned 256 Bit value.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static UInt256 ToUInt256(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value.Length > 32)
            throw new ArgumentException($"Value length {value.Length} exceeds limit. {32}");
        return new UInt256(value);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a signed 512 Bit value.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static Int512 ToInt512(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value.Length > 64)
            throw new ArgumentException($"Value length {value.Length} exceeds limit. {64}");
        return new Int512(value);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Unsigned 512 Bit value.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static UInt512 ToUInt512(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value.Length > 64)
            throw new ArgumentException($"Value length {value.Length} exceeds limit. {64}");
        return new UInt512(value);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a signed 1024 Bit value.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static xIntX ToInt1024(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value.Length > 128)
            throw new ArgumentException($"Value length {value.Length} exceeds limit. {128}");
        return new xIntX(value, 1024, false);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Unsigned 1024 Bit value.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static xIntX ToUInt1024(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value.Length > 128)
            throw new ArgumentException($"Value length {value.Length} exceeds limit. {128}");
        return new xIntX(value, 1024, true);
    }
    public static xIntX ToxIntX(this byte[] value)
    {
        var bl = value.Length * 8;
        return new xIntX(value, bl, false);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Float value converted from the byte at a specified position.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static float ToFloat(this byte[] value, int pos = 0)
    {
        return BitConverter.ToSingle(PadInt(value), pos);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Double value converted from the byte at a specified position.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static double ToDouble(this byte[] value, int pos = 0)
    {
        return BitConverter.ToDouble(PadLong(value), pos);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Decimal value converted from the byte at a specified position.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static unsafe decimal ToDecimal(this byte[] value, int pos = 0)
    {
        decimal dv;
        fixed (byte* bp = value)
        {
            var bpp = bp + pos;
            dv = *(decimal*) bpp;
        }
        return dv;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a String value converted from the byte at a specified position.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static string ToString(this byte[] value, int pos = 0)
    {
        return BitConverter.ToString(value, pos);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Secure String value converted from the byte array.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static SecureString ToSecureString(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("Value cannot be null.");
        var securestring = new SecureString();
        var asCharA      = value.ToCharArray();
        foreach (var c in asCharA)
            securestring.AppendChar(c);
        return securestring;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Boolean array converted from a byte array.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static bool[] ToBooleanArray(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("Value cannot be null.");
        var arr = new bool[value.Length];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, arr, 0, value.Length);
        return arr;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Character array converted from a byte array.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static char[] ToCharArray(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("Value cannot be null.");
        var arr = new char[value.Length];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, arr, 0, value.Length);
        return arr;
    }
    public static byte[] ToByteArray(this byte[] value, int index = 0, int length = -1)
    {
        if (length == -1)
            length = value.Length - index;
        var ba = new byte[length];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, index, ba, 0, length);
        return ba;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a SByte array converted from a byte array.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static sbyte[] ToSByteArray(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("Value cannot be null.");
        var arr = new sbyte[value.Length];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, arr, 0, value.Length);
        return arr;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Short array converted from a byte array.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static short[] ToShortArray(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("Value cannot be null.");
        var arr = new short[value.Length / 2];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, arr, 0, value.Length);
        return arr;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Unsigned Short array converted from a byte array.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static ushort[] ToUShortArray(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("Value cannot be null.");
        var arr = new ushort[value.Length / 2];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, arr, 0, value.Length);
        return arr;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Integer array converted from a byte array.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static int[] ToIntArray(this byte[] value, bool pad = false)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("Value cannot be null.");
        if (pad)
            value = PadInt(value);
        var arr = new int[value.Length / 4];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, arr, 0, value.Length);
        return arr;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Unsigned Integer array converted from a byte array.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static uint[] ToUIntArray(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("Value cannot be null.");
        var arr = new uint[value.Length / 4];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, arr, 0, value.Length);
        return arr;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Long array converted from the byte array.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static long[] ToLongArray(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("Value cannot be null.");
        var arr = new long[value.Length / 8];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, arr, 0, value.Length);
        return arr;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Unsigned Long array converted from a byte array.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static ulong[] ToULongArray(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("Value cannot be null.");
        var arr = new ulong[value.Length / 8];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, arr, 0, value.Length);
        return arr;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Float array converted from a byte array.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static float[] ToFloatArray(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("Value cannot be null.");
        if (value.Length % 4 != 0)
            throw new Exception("Byte Object length must be a multiple of 4");
        var arr = new List<float>();
        for (var i = 0; i < value.Length; i += 4)
        {
            var t = new[] {value[i], value[i + 1], value[i + 2], value[i + 3]};
            arr.Add(t.ToFloat());
        }
        return arr.ToArray();
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Double array converted from a byte array.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static double[] ToDoubleArray(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("Value cannot be null.");
        if (value.Length % 8 != 0)
            throw new Exception("Byte Object length must be a multiple of 8");
        var arr = new List<double>();
        for (var i = 0; i < value.Length; i += 8)
        {
            var t = new[]
            {
                value[i], value[i + 1], value[i + 2], value[i + 3], value[i + 4], value[i + 5], value[i + 6],
                value[i           + 7]
            };
            arr.Add(t.ToDouble());
        }
        return arr.ToArray();
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a decimal array converted from a byte array.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static decimal[] ToDecimalArray(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("Value cannot be null.");
        if (value.Length % 16 != 0)
            throw new Exception("Byte Object length must be a multiple of 16");
        var arr = new List<decimal>();
        for (var i = 0; i < value.Length; i += 16)
        {
            var t = new[]
            {
                value[i], value[i + 1], value[i + 2], value[i + 3], value[i + 4], value[i  + 5], value[i  + 6],
                value[i           + 7], value[i + 8], value[i + 9], value[i + 10], value[i + 11], value[i + 12],
                value[i           + 13],
                value[i           + 14], value[i + 15]
            };
            arr.Add(t.ToDecimal());
        }
        return arr.ToArray();
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Returns a Single String converted from the byte array.
    ///     (Converters.cs)
    /// </summary>
    public static string ToSingleString(this byte[] value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new Exception("Value cannot be null.");
        var enc = GetEncoding(value);
        switch (enc)
        {
            case ASCIIEncoding AsciiEncoding:
                return Encoding.ASCII.GetString(value);
            case UnicodeEncoding UnicodeEncoding:
                return Encoding.Unicode.GetString(value);
            case UTF32Encoding Utf32Encoding:
                return Encoding.UTF32.GetString(value);
            case UTF7Encoding Utf7Encoding:
                return Encoding.UTF7.GetString(value);
            case UTF8Encoding Utf8Encoding:
                return Encoding.UTF8.GetString(value);
            default:
                return Encoding.ASCII.GetString(value);
        }
    }
    private static Encoding GetEncoding(byte[] Data)
    {
        if (Data == null)
            throw new Exception("Array cannot be null.");
        if (Data.Length < 2)
            return Encoding.Default;
        if (Data[0] == 0xff && Data[1] == 0xfe)
            return Encoding.Unicode;
        if (Data[0] == 0xfe && Data[1] == 0xff)
            return Encoding.BigEndianUnicode;
        if (Data.Length < 3)
            return Encoding.Default;
        if (Data[0] == 0xef && Data[1] == 0xbb && Data[2] == 0xbf)
            return Encoding.UTF8;
        if (Data[0] == 0x2b && Data[1] == 0x2f && Data[2] == 0x76)
            return Encoding.UTF7;
        if (Data.Length < 4)
            return Encoding.Default;
        if (Data[0] == 0xff && Data[1] == 0xfe && Data[2] == 0 && Data[3] == 0)
            return Encoding.UTF32;
        return Encoding.Default;
    }
    public static bool ToBool(this string value)
    {
        bool result = default;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value))
            bool.TryParse(value, out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static char ToChar(this string value)
    {
        char result = default;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value))
            char.TryParse(value, out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static byte ToByte(this string value)
    {
        byte result = default;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value))
            byte.TryParse(value, out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static sbyte ToSByte(this string value)
    {
        sbyte result = default;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value))
            sbyte.TryParse(value, out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static short ToInt16(this string value)
    {
        short result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value))
            short.TryParse(value, out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static ushort ToUInt16(this string value)
    {
        ushort result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value))
            ushort.TryParse(value, out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static int ToInt32(this string value)
    {
        var result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value))
            int.TryParse(value, out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static uint ToUInt32(this string value)
    {
        uint result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value))
            uint.TryParse(value, out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static long ToInt64(this string value)
    {
        long result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value))
            long.TryParse(value, out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static ulong ToUInt64(this string value)
    {
        ulong result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value))
            ulong.TryParse(value, out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static float ToFloat(this string value)
    {
        float result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value))
            float.TryParse(value, out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static double ToDouble(this string value)
    {
        double result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value))
            double.TryParse(value, out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static decimal ToDecimal(this string value)
    {
        decimal result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value))
            decimal.TryParse(value, out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static bool ToBool(this char value)
    {
        bool result = default;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value.ToString()))
            bool.TryParse(value.ToString(), out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static byte ToByte(this char value)
    {
        byte result = default;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value.ToString()))
            byte.TryParse(value.ToString(), out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static sbyte ToSByte(this char value)
    {
        sbyte result = default;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value.ToString()))
            sbyte.TryParse(value.ToString(), out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static short ToInt16(this char value)
    {
        short result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value.ToString()))
            short.TryParse(value.ToString(), out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static ushort ToUInt16(this char value)
    {
        ushort result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value.ToString()))
            ushort.TryParse(value.ToString(), out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static int ToInt32(this char value)
    {
        var result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value.ToString()))
            int.TryParse(value.ToString(), out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static uint ToUInt32(this char value)
    {
        uint result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value.ToString()))
            uint.TryParse(value.ToString(), out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static long ToInt64(this char value)
    {
        long result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value.ToString()))
            long.TryParse(value.ToString(), out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static ulong ToUInt64(this char value)
    {
        ulong result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value.ToString()))
            ulong.TryParse(value.ToString(), out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static float ToFloat(this char value)
    {
        float result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value.ToString()))
            float.TryParse(value.ToString(), out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static double ToDouble(this char value)
    {
        double result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value.ToString()))
            double.TryParse(value.ToString(), out result);
        return result;
    }
    public static decimal ToDecimal(this char value)
    {
        decimal result = 0;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(value.ToString()))
            decimal.TryParse(value.ToString(), out result);
        return result;
    }
    private static byte[] PadLong(byte[] ba)
    {
        var s = ba.Length % 8;
        switch (s)
        {
            case 0:
                break;
            case 1:
                Array.Resize(ref ba, ba.Length + 7);
                ba[ba.Length - 1] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 2] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 3] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 4] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 5] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 6] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 7] = 0;
                break;
            case 2:
                Array.Resize(ref ba, ba.Length + 6);
                ba[ba.Length - 1] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 2] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 3] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 4] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 5] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 6] = 0;
                break;
            case 3:
                Array.Resize(ref ba, ba.Length + 5);
                ba[ba.Length - 1] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 2] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 3] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 4] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 5] = 0;
                break;
            case 4:
                Array.Resize(ref ba, ba.Length + 4);
                ba[ba.Length - 1] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 2] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 3] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 4] = 0;
                break;
            case 5:
                Array.Resize(ref ba, ba.Length + 3);
                ba[ba.Length - 1] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 2] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 3] = 0;
                break;
            case 6:
                Array.Resize(ref ba, ba.Length + 2);
                ba[ba.Length - 1] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 2] = 0;
                break;
            case 7:
                Array.Resize(ref ba, ba.Length + 1);
                ba[ba.Length - 1] = 0;
                break;
        }
        return ba;
    }
    private static byte[] PadInt(byte[] ba)
    {
        var s = ba.Length % 4;
        switch (s)
        {
            case 0:
                break;
            case 1:
                Array.Resize(ref ba, ba.Length + 3);
                ba[ba.Length - 1] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 2] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 3] = 0;
                break;
            case 2:
                Array.Resize(ref ba, ba.Length + 2);
                ba[ba.Length - 1] = 0;
                ba[ba.Length - 2] = 0;
                break;
            case 3:
                Array.Resize(ref ba, ba.Length + 1);
                ba[ba.Length - 1] = 0;
                break;
        }
        return ba;
    }
    private static byte[] PadShort(byte[] ba)
    {
        var s = ba.Length % 2;
        switch (s)
        {
            case 0:
                break;
            case 1:
                Array.Resize(ref ba, ba.Length + 1);
                ba[ba.Length - 1] = 0;
                break;
        }
        return ba;
    }
    public static byte[] GetBytesFromString(this string str)
    {
        if (str == null)
            throw new ArgumentNullException("string cannot be null.");
        if (str.Length == 0)
            return Array.Empty<byte>();
        var bytes = new byte[str.Length * sizeof(char)];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(str.ToCharArray(), 0, bytes, 0, bytes.Length);
        return bytes;
    }
    public static string GetStringFromBytes(this byte[] bytes)
    {
        if (bytes == null)
            throw new ArgumentNullException("bytes cannot be null.");
        if (bytes.Length % _charSize != 0)
            throw new ArgumentException("Invalid bytes length");
        if (bytes.Length == 0)
            return string.Empty;
        var chars = new char[bytes.Length / sizeof(char)];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(bytes, 0, chars, 0, bytes.Length);
        return new string(chars);
    }
    /// <summary>
    /// Takes a byte array and converts it to a non-serialized object
    /// </summary>
    public static T NonSerialByteArrayToObject<T>(this byte[] data)
    {
        var target = (T)Activator.CreateInstance(typeof(T), null);
        using (var ms = new MemoryStream(data))
        {
            byte[] ba = null;
            var infos = typeof(T).GetFields(BindingFlags.Public | BindingFlags.NonPublic | BindingFlags.Instance);
            foreach (var info in infos)
            {
                ba = new byte[sizeof(int)];
                ms.Read(ba, 0, sizeof(int));
                var size = BitConverter.ToInt32(ba, 0);
                ba = new byte[size];
                ms.Read(ba, 0, size);
                var bf = new BinaryFormatter();
                using (var ms1 = new MemoryStream(ba))
                {
                    info.SetValue(target, bf.Deserialize(ms1));
                }
            }
        }
        return target;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Takes a non-serialized object and converts it into a byte array
    /// </summary>
    private static byte[] GetBytesObjectNonSerial<T>(T obj)
    {
        using (var ms = new MemoryStream())
        {
            var infos = obj.GetType().GetFields(BindingFlags.Public | BindingFlags.NonPublic | BindingFlags.Instance);
            foreach (var info in infos)
            {
                var bf = new BinaryFormatter();
                using (var inMStream = new MemoryStream())
                {
                    var v = info.GetValue(obj);
                    if (v != null)
                    {
                        bf.Serialize(inMStream, v);
                        var ba = inMStream.ToArray();
                        ms.Write(ba.Length.GetBytes(), 0, sizeof(int));
                        ms.Write(ba, 0, ba.Length);
                    }
                }
            }
            return ms.ToArray();
        }
    }
}