UIntX.cs

Adjustable Bit Width Unsigned Integer 32,64,128,256,512,1024,2048…

Why not just use BigInteger? Think Hashing which relies on overflow.

using System;
using System.Collections;
using System.ComponentModel;
using System.Diagnostics;
using System.Globalization;
using System.Numerics;
using System.Runtime.InteropServices;
using System.Runtime.Serialization;
using System.Text;
[Serializable]
[StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential, Pack = 1)]
[TypeConverter(typeof(UIntXConverter))]
[DebuggerDisplay("{DDisplay}")]
public class UIntX : IComparable<UIntX>, IComparable, IEquatable<UIntX>, IConvertible, IFormattable, ISerializable
{
    private const    int               DataSize = sizeof(uint);
    private static   int               DataBitLength;
    private static   int               DataLength;
    public static    UIntX             Zero = new UIntX("0",  32);
    public static    UIntX             Ten  = new UIntX("10", 32);
    public static    UIntX             One  = new UIntX("1",  32);
    private readonly SerializationInfo SInfo;
    private          uint[]            data;
    public UIntX(UIntX value, int bitLength)
    {
        if (value == null)
            return;
        DataBitLength = bitLength;
        DataLength    = DataBitLength >> 5;
        data          = new uint[DataLength];
        value.data.CopyTo(data, 0);
    }
    public UIntX(string value, int bitLength)
    {
        DataBitLength = bitLength;
        DataLength    = DataBitLength >> 5;
        if (!TryParse(value, out var result))
            throw new Exception("TryParse Failed.");
        data = new uint[DataLength];
        result.data.CopyTo(data, 0);
    }
    public UIntX(byte value, int bitLength)
    {
        DataBitLength = bitLength;
        DataLength    = DataBitLength >> 5;
        data          = new uint[DataLength];
        data[0]       = value;
    }
    public UIntX(bool value, int bitLength)
    {
        DataBitLength = bitLength;
        DataLength    = DataBitLength >> 5;
        data          = new uint[DataLength];
        data[0]       = (uint) (value ? 1 : 0);
    }
    public UIntX(char value, int bitLength)
    {
        DataBitLength = bitLength;
        DataLength    = DataBitLength >> 5;
        data          = new uint[DataLength];
        data[0]       = value;
    }
    public UIntX(BigDecimal value, int bitLength)
    {
        DataBitLength = bitLength;
        DataLength    = DataBitLength >> 5;
        var ba = value.UnscaledValue.ToByteArray();
        data = new uint[DataLength];
        for (var i = 0; i < DataLength; i++)
            data[i] = BitConverter.ToUInt32(ba, i * DataSize);
    }
    public UIntX(decimal value, int bitLength)
    {
        DataBitLength = bitLength;
        DataLength    = DataBitLength >> 5;
        data          = new uint[DataLength];
        if (value < 0)
        {
            var n = -new UIntX(-value, DataBitLength);
            n.data.CopyTo(data, 0);
            return;
        }
        var bits = decimal.GetBits(value);
        data[2] = (uint) bits[2];
        data[1] = (uint) bits[1];
        data[0] = (uint) bits[0];
    }
    public UIntX(double value, int bitLength) : this((decimal) value, bitLength)
    {
    }
    public UIntX(float value, int bitLength) : this((decimal) value, bitLength)
    {
    }
    public UIntX(short value, int bitLength) : this((int) value, bitLength)
    {
    }
    public UIntX(int value, int bitLength)
    {
        DataBitLength = bitLength;
        DataLength    = DataBitLength >> 5;
        data          = new uint[DataLength];
        data[0]       = (uint) value;
    }
    public UIntX(long value, int bitLength) : this((ulong) value, bitLength)
    {
    }
    public UIntX(sbyte value, int bitLength) : this((int) value, bitLength)
    {
    }
    public UIntX(ushort value, int bitLength)
    {
        DataBitLength = bitLength;
        DataLength    = DataBitLength >> 5;
        data          = new uint[DataLength];
        data[0]       = value;
    }
    public UIntX(uint value, int bitLength)
    {
        DataBitLength = bitLength;
        DataLength    = DataBitLength >> 5;
        data          = new uint[DataLength];
        data[0]       = value;
    }
    public UIntX(ulong value, int bitLength)
    {
        DataBitLength = bitLength;
        DataLength    = DataBitLength >> 5;
        data          = new uint[DataLength];
        data[0]       = (uint) ((value >> 32) & 0xffffffff);
        data[1]       = (uint) (value         & 0xffffffff);
    }
    public UIntX(BigInteger value, int bitLength) : this(value.ToByteArray(), bitLength)
    {
    }
    public UIntX(Guid value, int bitLength) : this(value.ToByteArray(), bitLength)
    {
    }
    public UIntX(byte[] value, int bitLength)
    {
        if (value == null)
            throw new ArgumentNullException("value");
        DataBitLength = bitLength;
        DataLength    = DataBitLength >> 5;
        var minSize        = value.Length / DataSize;
        var byteCount      = value.Length;
        var isNegative     = byteCount > 0 && (value[byteCount - 1] & 0x80) == 0x80;
        var unalignedBytes = byteCount % DataSize;
        var dwordCount     = byteCount / DataSize + (unalignedBytes == 0 ? 0 : 1);
        data = new uint[Math.Max(dwordCount, minSize)];
        if (byteCount == 0)
            return;
        int curDword, curByte, byteInDword;
        curByte = 3;
        for (curDword = 0; curDword < dwordCount - (unalignedBytes == 0 ? 0 : 1); curDword++)
        {
            byteInDword = 0;
            while (byteInDword < DataSize)
            {
                data[curDword] <<= 8;
                data[curDword] |=  value[curByte];
                curByte--;
                byteInDword++;
            }
            curByte += 8;
        }
        if (unalignedBytes != 0)
        {
            if (isNegative)
                data[dwordCount - 1] = 0xffffffff;
            for (curByte = byteCount - 1; curByte >= byteCount - unalignedBytes; curByte--)
            {
                data[curDword] <<= 8;
                data[curDword] |=  value[curByte];
            }
        }
    }
    public UIntX(uint[] array, int bitLength)
    {
        if (array == null)
            throw new Exception("Array cannot be null.");
        DataBitLength = bitLength;
        DataLength    = DataBitLength >> 5;
        data          = new uint[DataLength];
        var ba = new byte[4];
        for (var i = 0; i < Math.Min(DataLength, array.Length); i++)
        {
            Array.Copy(BitConverter.GetBytes(array[i]), 0, ba, 0, DataSize);
            data[i] = BitConverter.ToUInt32(ba, 0);
        }
    }
    protected UIntX(SerializationInfo info, StreamingContext context)
    {
        SInfo = info;
    }
    [DebuggerBrowsable(DebuggerBrowsableState.Never)]
    private string DDisplay => ToString();
    public UIntX MaxValue => (One << DataBitLength) - 1;
    public bool  IsOne    => this     == One;
    public bool  IsEven   => this % 2 == 0;
    public bool IsZero
    {
        get
        {
            for (var i = 0; i < data.Length; i++)
                if (data[i] != 0)
                    return false;
            return true;
        }
    }
    int IComparable.CompareTo(object obj)
    {
        return Compare(this, obj);
    }
    public int CompareTo(UIntX value)
    {
        return Compare(this, value);
    }
    TypeCode IConvertible.GetTypeCode()
    {
        return TypeCode.Object;
    }
    bool IConvertible.ToBoolean(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return (bool) this;
    }
    byte IConvertible.ToByte(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return (byte) this;
    }
    char IConvertible.ToChar(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return (char) this;
    }
    DateTime IConvertible.ToDateTime(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        throw new InvalidCastException();
    }
    decimal IConvertible.ToDecimal(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return (decimal) this;
    }
    double IConvertible.ToDouble(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return (double) this;
    }
    short IConvertible.ToInt16(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return (short) this;
    }
    int IConvertible.ToInt32(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return (int) this;
    }
    long IConvertible.ToInt64(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return (int) this;
    }
    sbyte IConvertible.ToSByte(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return (sbyte) this;
    }
    float IConvertible.ToSingle(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return (float) this;
    }
    string IConvertible.ToString(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return ToString(null, provider);
    }
    public object ToType(Type conversionType, IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        object value;
        if (TryConvert(conversionType, provider, out value))
            return value;
        throw new InvalidCastException();
    }
    ushort IConvertible.ToUInt16(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        if (data[1] != 0)
            throw new OverflowException();
        return Convert.ToUInt16(data[0]);
    }
    uint IConvertible.ToUInt32(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        if (data[1] != 0)
            throw new OverflowException();
        return Convert.ToUInt32(data[0]);
    }
    ulong IConvertible.ToUInt64(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        if (data[1] != 0)
            throw new OverflowException();
        return data[0];
    }
    public bool Equals(UIntX obj)
    {
        if (ReferenceEquals(obj, null))
            return false;
        if (ReferenceEquals(this, obj))
            return true;
        if (data.Length != obj.data.Length)
            return false;
        for (var i = 0; i < data.Length; i++)
            if (data[i] != obj.data[i])
                return false;
        return true;
    }
    public string ToString(string format, IFormatProvider formatProvider)
    {
        if (formatProvider == null)
            formatProvider = CultureInfo.CurrentCulture;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(format))
        {
            var ch = format[0];
            if (ch == 'x' || ch == 'X')
            {
                int.TryParse(format.Substring(1).Trim(), out var min);
                return ToHexString(ch == 'X', min);
            }
            if (ch != 'G' && ch != 'g' && ch != 'D' && ch != 'd')
                throw new NotSupportedException("Not supported format: " + format);
        }
        return ToString((NumberFormatInfo) formatProvider.GetFormat(typeof(NumberFormatInfo)), 10);
    }
    public void GetObjectData(SerializationInfo info, StreamingContext context)
    {
        info.AddValue("Bits", DataBitLength);
        info.AddValue("Data", data, typeof(uint[]));
    }
    public void OnDeserialization(object sender)
    {
        if (SInfo == null)
            return;
        DataBitLength = SInfo.GetInt32("Bits");
        if (DataBitLength != 0)
        {
            DataLength = DataBitLength >> 5;
            var array = (uint[]) SInfo.GetValue("Data", typeof(uint[]));
            if (array == null)
                throw new Exception("Array cannot be null.");
            if (array.Length != DataLength)
                Array.Resize(ref array, DataLength);
            data = new uint[DataLength];
            var ba = new byte[4];
            for (var i = 0; i < DataLength; i++)
            {
                Array.Copy(BitConverter.GetBytes(array[i]), 0, ba, 0, DataSize);
                data[i] = BitConverter.ToUInt32(ba, 0);
            }
        }
    }
    private static byte[] ToByteArray(ulong[] value)
    {
        var ba = new byte[value.Length << 3];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, ba, 0, value.Length << 3);
        return ba;
    }
    private static byte[] ToByteArray(uint[] value)
    {
        var ba = new byte[value.Length << 2];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, ba, 0, value.Length << 2);
        return ba;
    }
    public override int GetHashCode()
    {
        var hash = 0x811c9dc5;
        for (var i = 0; i < DataLength; i++)
        {
            hash ^= ((hash << 13) | (hash >> 19)) ^ data[i];
            hash *= 0x1000193;
        }
        return (int) hash;
    }
    public override bool Equals(object obj)
    {
        return base.Equals(obj);
    }
    public override string ToString()
    {
        return ToString(null, null);
    }
    public string ToString(string format)
    {
        return ToString(format, null);
    }
    private string ToHexString(bool caps, int min)
    {
        var bytes = ToByteArray().Invert();
        var sb    = new StringBuilder();
        var x     = caps ? "X" : "x";
        foreach (var b in bytes)
        {
            var hex = b.ToString($"{x}2");
            sb.Append(hex);
        }
        return sb.ToString();
    }
    private string ToString(NumberFormatInfo info, int radix)
    {
        if (radix < 2 || radix > 36)
            throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("radix");
        if (IsZero)
            return "0";
        var          a       = new UIntX(this,  DataBitLength);
        var          biRadix = new UIntX(radix, DataBitLength);
        const string charSet = "0123456789abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz";
        var          al      = new ArrayList();
        while (a > 0)
            try
            {
                Divide(a, biRadix, out var remainder, out var quotient);
                al.Insert(0, charSet[(int) remainder.data[0]]);
                a = quotient;
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                break;
            }
        var result = new string((char[]) al.ToArray(typeof(char)));
        return result;
    }
    public bool TryConvert(Type conversionType, IFormatProvider provider, out object value)
    {
        if (conversionType == typeof(bool))
        {
            value = (bool) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(byte))
        {
            value = (byte) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(char))
        {
            value = (char) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(decimal))
        {
            value = (decimal) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(double))
        {
            value = (double) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(short))
        {
            value = (short) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(int))
        {
            value = (int) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(long))
        {
            value = (long) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(sbyte))
        {
            value = (sbyte) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(float))
        {
            value = (float) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(string))
        {
            value = ToString(null, provider);
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(ushort))
        {
            value = (ushort) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(uint))
        {
            value = (uint) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(ulong))
        {
            value = (ulong) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(byte[]))
        {
            value = ToByteArray();
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(Guid))
        {
            value = new Guid(ToByteArray());
            return true;
        }
        value = null;
        return false;
    }
    public static UIntX Parse(string value)
    {
        return Parse(value, NumberStyles.Integer, NumberFormatInfo.CurrentInfo);
    }
    public static UIntX Parse(string value, NumberStyles style)
    {
        return Parse(value, style, NumberFormatInfo.CurrentInfo);
    }
    public static UIntX Parse(string value, IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return Parse(value, NumberStyles.Integer, NumberFormatInfo.GetInstance(provider));
    }
    public static UIntX Parse(string value, NumberStyles style, IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        if (!TryParse(value, style, provider, out var result))
            throw new Exception($"TryParse value {value} failure.");
        return result;
    }
    public static bool TryParse(string value, out UIntX result)
    {
        return TryParse(value, NumberStyles.Integer, NumberFormatInfo.CurrentInfo, out result);
    }
    public static bool TryParse(string value, NumberStyles style, IFormatProvider provider, out UIntX result)
    {
        result = Zero;
        if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(value))
            return false;
        if (value.StartsWith("x", StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase))
        {
            style |= NumberStyles.AllowHexSpecifier;
            value =  value.Substring(1);
        }
        else
        {
            if (value.StartsWith("0x", StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase))
            {
                style |= NumberStyles.AllowHexSpecifier;
                value =  value.Substring(2);
            }
        }
        if ((style & NumberStyles.AllowHexSpecifier) == NumberStyles.AllowHexSpecifier)
            return TryParseNum(value, 16, out result);
        return TryParseNum(value, 10, out result);
    }
    public static bool TryParseNum(string digits, int radix, out UIntX result)
    {
        result = new UIntX(0, DataBitLength);
        if (digits == null)
            return false;
        var multiplier = new UIntX(1, DataBitLength);
        digits = digits.ToUpper(CultureInfo.CurrentCulture).Trim();
        var nDigits = digits[0] == '-' ? 1 : 0;
        for (var idx = digits.Length - 1; idx >= nDigits; idx--)
        {
            var d = (int) digits[idx];
            if (d >= '0' && d <= '9')
                d -= '0';
            else if (d >= 'A' && d <= 'Z')
                d = d - 'A' + 10;
            else
                return false;
            if (d >= radix)
                return false;
            result     += multiplier * d;
            multiplier *= radix;
        }
        if (digits[0] == '-')
            result = -result;
        return true;
    }
    public static int Compare(UIntX left, object right)
    {
        if (right is UIntX)
            return Compare(left, (UIntX) right);
        if (right is bool)
            return Compare(left, new UIntX((bool) right, DataBitLength));
        if (right is byte)
            return Compare(left, new UIntX((byte) right, DataBitLength));
        if (right is char)
            return Compare(left, new UIntX((char) right, DataBitLength));
        if (right is decimal)
            return Compare(left, new UIntX((decimal) right, DataBitLength));
        if (right is double)
            return Compare(left, new UIntX((double) right, DataBitLength));
        if (right is short)
            return Compare(left, new UIntX((short) right, DataBitLength));
        if (right is int)
            return Compare(left, new UIntX((int) right, DataBitLength));
        if (right is long)
            return Compare(left, new UIntX((long) right, DataBitLength));
        if (right is sbyte)
            return Compare(left, new UIntX((sbyte) right, DataBitLength));
        if (right is float)
            return Compare(left, new UIntX((float) right, DataBitLength));
        if (right is ushort)
            return Compare(left, new UIntX((ushort) right, DataBitLength));
        if (right is uint)
            return Compare(left, new UIntX((uint) right, DataBitLength));
        if (right is ulong)
            return Compare(left, new UIntX((ulong) right, DataBitLength));
        var bytes = right as byte[];
        if (bytes != null && bytes.Length != 64)
            return Compare(left, new UIntX(bytes, DataBitLength));
        if (right is Guid)
            return Compare(left, new UIntX((Guid) right, DataBitLength));
        throw new ArgumentException();
    }
    public static int Compare(UIntX left, UIntX right)
    {
        if (left.data.Length < right.data.Length)
            return -1;
        if (ReferenceEquals(left, right))
            return 0;
        if (ReferenceEquals(left, null))
            throw new ArgumentNullException("left");
        if (ReferenceEquals(right, null))
            throw new ArgumentNullException("right");
        if (left > right) return 1;
        if (left == right) return 0;
        return -1;
    }
    public static implicit operator UIntX(bool value)
    {
        return new UIntX(value, DataBitLength);
    }
    public static implicit operator UIntX(byte value)
    {
        return new UIntX(value, DataBitLength);
    }
    public static implicit operator UIntX(char value)
    {
        return new UIntX(value, DataBitLength);
    }
    public static explicit operator UIntX(decimal value)
    {
        return new UIntX(value, DataBitLength);
    }
    public static explicit operator UIntX(double value)
    {
        return new UIntX(value, DataBitLength);
    }
    public static implicit operator UIntX(short value)
    {
        return new UIntX(value, DataBitLength);
    }
    public static implicit operator UIntX(int value)
    {
        return new UIntX(value, DataBitLength);
    }
    public static implicit operator UIntX(long value)
    {
        return new UIntX(value, DataBitLength);
    }
    public static implicit operator UIntX(sbyte value)
    {
        return new UIntX(value, DataBitLength);
    }
    public static explicit operator UIntX(float value)
    {
        return new UIntX(value, DataBitLength);
    }
    public static implicit operator UIntX(ushort value)
    {
        return new UIntX(value, DataBitLength);
    }
    public static implicit operator UIntX(uint value)
    {
        return new UIntX(value, DataBitLength);
    }
    public static implicit operator UIntX(ulong value)
    {
        return new UIntX(value, DataBitLength);
    }
    public static implicit operator UIntX(BigInteger value)
    {
        return new UIntX(value, DataBitLength);
    }
    public static implicit operator UIntX(BigDecimal value)
    {
        return new UIntX(value, DataBitLength);
    }
    public static explicit operator bool(UIntX value)
    {
        return (byte) value.data[0] != 0;
    }
    public static explicit operator byte(UIntX value)
    {
        return (byte) value.data[0];
    }
    public static explicit operator char(UIntX value)
    {
        return (char) (ushort) value.data[0];
    }
    public static explicit operator decimal(UIntX value)
    {
        return new decimal((int) value.data[0], (int) value.data[1], (int) value.data[2], false, 0);
    }
    public static explicit operator double(UIntX value)
    {
        var nfi = CultureInfo.InvariantCulture.NumberFormat;
        if (!double.TryParse(value.ToString(nfi, 10), NumberStyles.Number, nfi, out var d))
            throw new OverflowException();
        return d;
    }
    public static explicit operator float(UIntX value)
    {
        var nfi = CultureInfo.InvariantCulture.NumberFormat;
        if (!float.TryParse(value.ToString(nfi, 10), NumberStyles.Number, nfi, out var f))
            throw new OverflowException();
        return f;
    }
    public static explicit operator short(UIntX value)
    {
        return (short) (int) value.data[0];
    }
    public static explicit operator int(UIntX value)
    {
        return (int) value.data[0];
    }
    public static explicit operator long(UIntX value)
    {
        if (value.data[1] != 0)
            return (long) (((ulong) value.data[1] << 32) | value.data[0]);
        return value.data[0];
    }
    public static explicit operator uint(UIntX value)
    {
        return value.data[0];
    }
    public static explicit operator ushort(UIntX value)
    {
        return (ushort) value.data[0];
    }
    public static explicit operator ulong(UIntX value)
    {
        if (value.data[1] != 0)
            return ((ulong) value.data[1] << 32) | value.data[0];
        return value.data[0];
    }
    public static explicit operator BigInteger(UIntX value)
    {
        return new BigInteger(value.ToByteArray());
    }
    public static bool operator >(UIntX left, UIntX right)
    {
        if (left.data.Length > right.data.Length)
            return false;
        if (left.data.Length < right.data.Length)
            return true;
        if (ReferenceEquals(left, null))
            throw new ArgumentNullException("left");
        if (ReferenceEquals(right, null))
            throw new ArgumentNullException("right");
        for (var i = 0; i < DataLength; i++)
            if (left.data[i] != right.data[i])
                return left.data[i] > right.data[i];
        return false;
    }
    public static bool operator <(UIntX left, UIntX right)
    {
        return Compare(left, right) < 0;
    }
    public static bool operator >=(UIntX left, UIntX right)
    {
        return Compare(left, right) >= 0;
    }
    public static bool operator <=(UIntX left, UIntX right)
    {
        return Compare(left, right) <= 0;
    }
    public static bool operator !=(UIntX left, UIntX right)
    {
        return Compare(left, right) != 0;
    }
    public static bool operator ==(UIntX left, UIntX right)
    {
        if (ReferenceEquals(left, right))
            return true;
        if (ReferenceEquals(left, null) || ReferenceEquals(right, null))
            return false;
        return left.Equals(right);
    }
    public static UIntX operator +(UIntX value)
    {
        return value;
    }
    public static UIntX operator ~(UIntX value)
    {
        var da = new uint[DataLength];
        for (var idx = 0; idx < DataLength; idx++)
            da[idx] = ~value.data[idx];
        return new UIntX(da, DataBitLength);
    }
    public static UIntX operator -(UIntX value)
    {
        return Negate(value);
    }
    public static UIntX operator ++(UIntX value)
    {
        return value + 1;
    }
    public static UIntX operator --(UIntX value)
    {
        return value - 1;
    }
    public static UIntX Negate(UIntX value)
    {
        for (var i = 0; i < DataLength; i++)
            value.data[i] = ~value.data[i];
        return new UIntX(value, DataBitLength);
    }
    public static UIntX operator +(UIntX left, UIntX right)
    {
        var  dl     = left.data.Length > right.data.Length ? left.data.Length : right.data.Length;
        var  result = new uint[dl];
        long carry  = 0;
        for (var i = 0; i < dl; i++)
        {
            var sum = left.data[i] + (long) right.data[i] + carry;
            carry     = sum >> 32;
            result[i] = (uint) (sum & 0xFFFFFFFF);
        }
        if (carry != 0)
        {
            var idx = 0;
            while (idx < result.Length - 1)
            {
                if (result[idx] == 0)
                    break;
                idx++;
            }
            result[idx] = (uint) carry;
        }
        return new UIntX(result, DataBitLength);
    }
    public static UIntX operator -(UIntX left, UIntX right)
    {
        var  size  = Math.Max(left.data.Length, right.data.Length) + 1;
        var  da    = new uint[size];
        long carry = 0;
        for (var i = 0; i < da.Length - 1; i++)
        {
            var diff = left.data[i] - (long) right.data[i] - carry;
            da[i] = (uint) (diff & DigitsArray.AllBits);
            carry = diff < 0 ? 1 : 0;
        }
        return new UIntX(da, DataBitLength);
    }
    public static UIntX Add(UIntX left, UIntX right)
    {
        return left + right;
    }
    public static UIntX Subtract(UIntX left, UIntX right)
    {
        return left - right;
    }
    public static UIntX Divide(UIntX dividend, UIntX divisor)
    {
        return DivRem(dividend, divisor, out var integer);
    }
    public static void Divide(UIntX dividend, UIntX divisor, out UIntX remainder, out UIntX quotient)
    {
        if (divisor == 0)
            throw new DivideByZeroException();
        DivRem(dividend.data, divisor.data, out var quo, out var rem);
        remainder = new UIntX(rem, DataBitLength);
        quotient  = new UIntX(quo, DataBitLength);
    }
    public static UIntX DivRem(UIntX dividend, UIntX divisor, out UIntX remainder)
    {
        if (divisor == 0)
            throw new DivideByZeroException();
        DivRem(dividend.data, divisor.data, out var quotient, out var rem);
        remainder = new UIntX(rem, DataBitLength);
        return new UIntX(quotient, DataBitLength);
    }
    private static void DivRem(uint[] dividend, uint[] divisor, out uint[] quotient, out uint[] remainder)
    {
        const ulong hiBit       = 0x100000000;
        var         divisorLen  = GetLength(divisor);
        var         dividendLen = GetLength(dividend);
        if (divisorLen <= 1)
        {
            ulong rem = 0;
            var   div = divisor[0];
            quotient  = new uint[dividendLen];
            remainder = new uint[1];
            for (var i = dividendLen - 1; i >= 0; i--)
            {
                rem *= hiBit;
                rem += dividend[i];
                var q = rem / div;
                rem         -= q * div;
                quotient[i] =  (uint) q;
            }
            remainder[0] = (uint) rem;
            return;
        }
        if (dividendLen >= divisorLen)
        {
            var shift        = GetNormalizeShift(divisor[divisorLen - 1]);
            var normDividend = new uint[dividendLen + 1];
            var normDivisor  = new uint[divisorLen];
            Normalize(dividend, dividendLen, normDividend, shift);
            Normalize(divisor,  divisorLen,  normDivisor,  shift);
            quotient = new uint[dividendLen - divisorLen + 1];
            for (var j = dividendLen - divisorLen; j >= 0; j--)
            {
                var dx = hiBit * normDividend[j + divisorLen] + normDividend[j + divisorLen - 1];
                var qj = dx / normDivisor[divisorLen                                        - 1];
                dx -= qj * normDivisor[divisorLen - 1];
                do
                {
                    if (qj < hiBit && qj * normDivisor[divisorLen - 2] <= dx * hiBit + normDividend[j + divisorLen - 2])
                        break;
                    qj -= 1L;
                    dx += normDivisor[divisorLen - 1];
                } while (dx < hiBit);
                ulong di = 0;
                ulong dj;
                var   index = 0;
                while (index < divisorLen)
                {
                    var dqj = normDivisor[index] * qj;
                    dj                      = normDividend[index + j] - (uint) dqj - di;
                    normDividend[index + j] = (uint) dj;
                    dqj                     = dqj >> 32;
                    dj                      = dj  >> 32;
                    di                      = dqj - dj;
                    index++;
                }
                dj                           = normDividend[j + divisorLen] - di;
                normDividend[j + divisorLen] = (uint) dj;
                quotient[j]                  = (uint) qj;
                if ((long) dj < 0)
                {
                    quotient[j]--;
                    ulong sum = 0;
                    for (index = 0; index < divisorLen; index++)
                    {
                        sum                     = normDivisor[index] + normDividend[j + index] + sum;
                        normDividend[j + index] = (uint) sum;
                        sum                     = sum >> 32;
                    }
                    sum += normDividend[j + divisorLen];
                    normDividend[j        + divisorLen] = (uint) sum;
                }
            }
            remainder = Unnormalize(normDividend, shift);
            return;
        }
        quotient  = new uint[1];
        remainder = dividend;
    }
    private static int GetLength(uint[] uints)
    {
        var index = uints.Length - 1;
        while (index >= 0 && uints[index] == 0)
            index--;
        return index + 1;
    }
    private static int GetNormalizeShift(uint ui)
    {
        var shift = 0;
        if ((ui & 0xffff0000) == 0)
        {
            ui    =  ui << 16;
            shift += 16;
        }
        if ((ui & 0xff000000) == 0)
        {
            ui    =  ui << 8;
            shift += 8;
        }
        if ((ui & 0xf0000000) == 0)
        {
            ui    =  ui << 4;
            shift += 4;
        }
        if ((ui & 0xc0000000) == 0)
        {
            ui    =  ui << 2;
            shift += 2;
        }
        if ((ui & 0x80000000) == 0)
            shift++;
        return shift;
    }
    private static uint[] Unnormalize(uint[] normalized, int shift)
    {
        var len          = GetLength(normalized);
        var unnormalized = new uint[len];
        if (shift > 0)
        {
            var  rshift = 32 - shift;
            uint r      = 0;
            for (var i = len - 1; i >= 0; i--)
            {
                unnormalized[i] = (normalized[i] >> shift) | r;
                r               = normalized[i] << rshift;
            }
        }
        else
        {
            for (var j = 0; j < len; j++)
                unnormalized[j] = normalized[j];
        }
        return unnormalized;
    }
    private static void Normalize(uint[] unormalized, int len, uint[] normalized, int shift)
    {
        int  i;
        uint n = 0;
        if (shift > 0)
        {
            var rShift = 32 - shift;
            for (i = 0; i < len; i++)
            {
                normalized[i] = (unormalized[i] << shift) | n;
                n             = unormalized[i] >> rShift;
            }
        }
        else
        {
            i = 0;
            while (i < len)
            {
                normalized[i] = unormalized[i];
                i++;
            }
        }
        while (i < normalized.Length)
            normalized[i++] = 0;
        if (n != 0)
            normalized[len] = n;
    }
    public static UIntX Remainder(UIntX dividend, UIntX divisor)
    {
        DivRem(dividend, divisor, out var remainder);
        return remainder;
    }
    public static UIntX Max(UIntX left, UIntX right)
    {
        return left.CompareTo(right) < 0 ? right : left;
    }
    public static UIntX Min(UIntX left, UIntX right)
    {
        return left.CompareTo(right) <= 0 ? left : right;
    }
    public static UIntX operator %(UIntX dividend, UIntX divisor)
    {
        return Remainder(dividend, divisor);
    }
    public static UIntX operator /(UIntX dividend, UIntX divisor)
    {
        return Divide(dividend, divisor);
    }
    public ulong[] ToUIn64Array()
    {
        var al = data.Length >> 1;
        if (al * 2 != data.Length)
            al++;
        var arr = new ulong[al];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(data, 0, arr, 0, data.Length << 2);
        return arr;
    }
    public uint[] ToUIn32Array()
    {
        return data;
    }
    public byte[] ToByteArray()
    {
        var ba = new byte[data.Length * DataSize];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(data, 0, ba, 0, data.Length * DataSize);
        return ba;
    }
    public byte[] ToByteArray(int length)
    {
        if (length <= 0 || length > data.Length * DataSize)
            throw new ArgumentException($"Length {length} out of range length > 0 or length <= {data.Length * DataSize}");
        var ba = new byte[length];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(data, 0, ba, 0, length);
        return ba;
    }
    public static UIntX Multiply(UIntX left, UIntX right)
    {
        var xInts   = left.data;
        var yInts   = right.data;
        var mulInts = new uint[Math.Max(xInts.Length, yInts.Length) << 1];
        for (var i = 0; i < xInts.Length; i++)
        {
            var   index     = i;
            ulong remainder = 0;
            foreach (var yi in yInts)
            {
                remainder        = remainder + (ulong) xInts[i] * yi + mulInts[index];
                mulInts[index++] = (uint) remainder;
                remainder        = remainder >> 32;
            }
            while (remainder != 0)
            {
                remainder        += mulInts[index];
                mulInts[index++] =  (uint) remainder;
                remainder        =  remainder >> 32;
            }
        }
        return new UIntX(mulInts, DataBitLength);
    }
    public static UIntX operator *(UIntX left, UIntX right)
    {
        return Multiply(left, right);
    }
    public static UIntX operator >>(UIntX value, int shift)
    {
        if (value == Zero)
            return Zero;
        var xd          = (uint[]) value.data.Clone();
        var shiftAmount = 32;
        var invShift    = 0;
        var bufLen      = xd.Length;
        while (bufLen > 1 && xd[bufLen - 1] == 0)
            bufLen--;
        for (var count = shift; count > 0; count -= shiftAmount)
        {
            if (count < shiftAmount)
            {
                shiftAmount = count;
                invShift    = 32 - shiftAmount;
            }
            ulong carry = 0;
            for (var i = bufLen - 1; i >= 0; i--)
            {
                var val = (ulong) xd[i] >> shiftAmount;
                val   |= carry;
                carry =  (ulong) xd[i] << invShift;
                xd[i] =  (uint) val;
            }
        }
        return new UIntX(xd, DataBitLength);
    }
    public static UIntX operator <<(UIntX value, int shift)
    {
        if (value == Zero)
            return Zero;
        var digitShift = shift / 32;
        var smallShift = shift - digitShift * 32;
        var xd         = (uint[]) value.data.Clone();
        var xl         = xd.Length;
        var zd         = new uint[xl + digitShift + 1];
        if (smallShift == 0)
        {
            for (var index = 0; index < xl; ++index)
                zd[index + digitShift] = xd[index];
        }
        else
        {
            var  carryShift = 32 - smallShift;
            uint carry      = 0;
            int  index;
            for (index = 0; index < xl; ++index)
            {
                var rot = xd[index];
                zd[index + digitShift] = (rot << smallShift) | carry;
                carry                  = rot >> carryShift;
            }
            zd[index + digitShift] = carry;
        }
        return new UIntX(zd, DataBitLength);
    }
    public static UIntX operator |(UIntX left, UIntX right)
    {
        if (left == 0)
            return right;
        if (right == 0)
            return left;
        var z = new uint[Math.Max(left.data.Length, right.data.Length)];
        for (var i = 0; i < z.Length; i++)
        {
            var xu = i < left.data.Length ? left.data[i] : 0U;
            var yu = i < right.data.Length ? right.data[i] : 0U;
            z[i] = xu | yu;
        }
        return new UIntX(z, DataBitLength);
    }
    public static UIntX operator ^(UIntX left, UIntX right)
    {
        var z = new uint[Math.Max(left.data.Length, right.data.Length)];
        for (var i = 0; i < z.Length; i++)
        {
            var xu = i < left.data.Length ? left.data[i] : 0U;
            var yu = i < right.data.Length ? right.data[i] : 0U;
            z[i] = xu ^ yu;
        }
        return new UIntX(z, DataBitLength);
    }
    public static UIntX operator &(UIntX left, UIntX right)
    {
        if (left == 0 || right == 0)
            return Zero;
        var z = new uint[Math.Max(left.data.Length, right.data.Length)];
        for (var i = 0; i < z.Length; i++)
        {
            var xu = i < left.data.Length ? left.data[i] : 0U;
            var yu = i < right.data.Length ? right.data[i] : 0U;
            z[i] = xu & yu;
        }
        return new UIntX(z, DataBitLength);
    }
    private class UIntXConverter : TypeConverter
    {
        public override bool CanConvertFrom(ITypeDescriptorContext context, Type sourceType)
        {
            return sourceType == typeof(string) || base.CanConvertFrom(context, sourceType);
        }
        public override object ConvertFrom(ITypeDescriptorContext context, CultureInfo culture, object value)
        {
            if (value != null)
                if (TryParse($"{value}", out var i))
                    return i;
            return new UIntX("0", DataBitLength);
        }
        public override bool CanConvertTo(ITypeDescriptorContext context, Type destinationType)
        {
            return destinationType == typeof(string) || base.CanConvertTo(context, destinationType);
        }
        public override object ConvertTo(ITypeDescriptorContext context, CultureInfo culture, object value, Type destinationType)
        {
            return destinationType == typeof(string) ? $"{value}" : base.ConvertTo(context, culture, value, destinationType);
        }
    }
}

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