ChiSquared.cs

Chi Squared Data/Byte/Text Test

using System;
using System.Collections.Concurrent;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Globalization;
using System.IO;
using System.Linq;
public static class ChiSquared
{
    /// <summary>
    ///     Calculated from an English word dictionary containing over 466,000 words.
    /// </summary>
    private static readonly float[] _expectedPercentages = {.0846f, .0189f, .0420f, .0353f, .1098f, .0125f, .0243f, .0274f, .0864f, .0018f, .0089f, .0574f, .0292f, .0715f, .0709f, .0310f, .0019f, .0704f, .0705f, .0647f, .0363f, .0099f, .0085f, .0028f, .0192f, .0041f};
    /// <summary>
    ///     Not accurate 100% all of the time.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="path"></param>
    public static bool IsFileCompressed(this string path)
    {
        var arr = File.ReadAllBytes(path);
        var r1  = arr.ChiSquaredTest();
        return r1.isRandom;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Tests a buffer for randomness. Returns chi squared values.
    ///     isRandom - is the buffer a random sequence.
    ///     Quality - Less than 1 or greater than 1 is off target. Observed is off expected.
    ///     Entropy - Calculates a 8 bit Entropy level of the buffer as a percentage of perfect disorder 100%
    ///     ExpectedChiSq - The expected chi squared value.
    ///     LowLimit - (R - (2*sqrt(R)))
    ///     chiSqValue - The observed chi squared value.
    ///     UpperLimit - (R + (2*sqrt(R)))
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="bArr">The byte Array</param>
    public static (bool isRandom, float Quality, float Entropy, int ExpectedChiSq, float LowLimit, float chiSqValue, float UpperLimit) ChiSquaredTest(this byte[] bArr)
    {
        if (bArr != null)
        {
            var iArr = Ia(bArr);
            var ent  = Entropy(bArr);
            if (ent < 80)
                return (false, 0, ent, 0, 0, 0, 0);
            var aLen = iArr.Length;
            var rLim = aLen / 10;
            var n    = aLen;
            var r    = rLim - 1;
            var freq = new ConcurrentDictionary<int, int>();
            iArr.AsParallel().WithDegreeOfParallelism(2).ForAll(I =>
            {
                var iT = Math.Abs(Math.Abs(I) % rLim - rLim);
                if (!freq.ContainsKey(iT))
                    freq.TryAdd(iT, 1);
                else
                    freq[iT] += 1;
            });
            var t  = freq.Sum(e => (float) Math.Pow(e.Value, 2));
            var cS = Math.Abs(r * t / n - n);
            var fL = r - 2.0f * (float) Math.Sqrt(r);
            var fH = r + 2.0f * (float) Math.Sqrt(r);
            var iR = (fL <= cS) & (fH >= cS);
            var q  = cS / r;
            return (iR, q, ent, r, fL, cS, fH);
        }
        return default;
    }
    private static int[] Ia(byte[] ba)
    {
        var bal        = ba.Length;
        var dWordCount = bal / 4 + (bal % 4 == 0 ? 0 : 1);
        var arr        = new int[dWordCount];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(ba, 0, arr, 0, bal);
        return arr;
    }
    private static float Entropy(byte[] s)
    {
        float len = s.Length;
        var   map = new int[256];
        for (var i = 0; i < (int) len; i++)
            map[s[i]]++;
        var result = 0f;
        for (var idx = 0; idx < map.Length; idx++)
        {
            var frequency = map[idx] / len;
            if (frequency > 0)
                result -= frequency * (float) Math.Log(frequency, 2);
        }
        return result / 8f * 100f;
    }
    public static int ChiSquaredCount(this byte[] s, byte b)
    {
        float len = s.Length;
        var   map = new int[256];
        for (var i = 0; i < (int) len; i++)
            map[s[i]]++;
        return map[b];
    }
    public static int ChiSquaredCount(this string s, char b)
    {
        float len = s.Length;
        var   map = new int[256];
        for (var i = 0; i < (int) len; i++)
            map[s[i]]++;
        return map[b];
    }
    public static float ChiSquaredAsPercent(this string s, char b)
    {
        float len = s.Length;
        var   map = new int[256];
        for (var i = 0; i < (int) len; i++)
            map[s[i]]++;
        return map[b] / len;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Compute the letter frequencies within the English language.
    ///     Use a large English language text block for accurate testing.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="s">String that contains the large English text</param>
    public static KeyValuePair<char, float>[] ChiSquaredTextAsPercent(this string s)
    {
        float len = s.Length;
        s = s.ToLower(CultureInfo.CurrentCulture);
        var lst = new Dictionary<char, float>();
        var map = new int[256];
        for (var i = 0; i < (int) len; i++)
            if (s[i].IsLetter())
                map[s[i]]++;
        var t = map.Sum(e => e);
        foreach (var l in "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz")
            lst.Add(l, map[l] / (float) t);
        var klst      = lst.OrderBy(e => e.Key).ToArray();
        var KeyList   = "";
        var ValueList = "";
        foreach (var kv in klst)
        {
            KeyList   += $"{kv.Key},";
            ValueList += $"{kv.Value:.0000},";
        }
        var nlst = lst.OrderBy(e => e.Value).ToArray();
        return nlst;
    }
    public static float ChiSquaredTextTest(this string s)
    {
        var realLen = 0;
        s = s.ToLower(CultureInfo.CurrentCulture);
        var observed = new Dictionary<char, int>();
        foreach (var c in s)
            if (c.IsLetter())
            {
                if (!observed.ContainsKey(c))
                    observed.Add(c, 1);
                else
                    observed[c]++;
                realLen++;
            }
        var expected = new Dictionary<char, float>();
        for (var i = 0; i < 26; i++)
            expected.Add((char) (i + 97), _expectedPercentages[i] * realLen);
        var cSList = new List<float>();
        foreach (var item in expected)
        {
            var c = item.Key;
            if (observed.ContainsKey(c))
                cSList.Add((float) Math.Pow(observed[c] - expected[c], 2) / expected[c]);
        }
        return cSList.Sum(e => e) / realLen * 100f;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     The value of 10 as a combined chi-squared total distance percentage threshold is subjective.
    ///     Determined from about 40 test runs. Most non-text files have readings
    ///     in the 100's
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="path">Path to the file to test</param>
    public static bool IsTextFile(this string path)
    {
        return File.ReadAllText(path).ChiSquaredTextTest() < 10;
    }
    
}

FixedBigInteger.cs

Adjustable Fixed Bit Width Signed Integer 32,64,128,256,…

using System;
using System.Collections;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.ComponentModel;
using System.Diagnostics;
using System.Globalization;
using System.Numerics;
using System.Runtime.InteropServices;
using System.Runtime.Serialization;
using System.Text;
[Serializable]
[StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential, Pack = 1)]
[TypeConverter(typeof(FixedBigIntegerConverter))]
[DebuggerDisplay("{DDisplay}")]
public class FixedBigInteger : IComparable<FixedBigInteger>, IComparable, IEquatable<FixedBigInteger>, IConvertible, IFormattable, ISerializable
{
    private const          int               DefaultDataBitWidth = 2048;
    private const          int               DataSize            = sizeof(uint);
    private const          int               DataShiftCount      = 5;
    private const          uint              AllBits             = ~(uint) 0;
    private const          int               DataSizeBits        = sizeof(uint) * 8;
    private const          uint              HiNeg               = (uint) 1 << (DataSizeBits - 1);
    private static         int               DataBitWidth;
    private static         int               DataLength;
    public static readonly FixedBigInteger   One   = new FixedBigInteger(1,  DataBitWidth);
    public static readonly FixedBigInteger   Two   = new FixedBigInteger(2,  DataBitWidth);
    public static readonly FixedBigInteger   Zero  = new FixedBigInteger(0,  DataBitWidth);
    public static readonly FixedBigInteger   Ten   = new FixedBigInteger(10, DataBitWidth);
    public static readonly FixedBigInteger   Three = new FixedBigInteger(3,  DataBitWidth);
    private readonly       SerializationInfo SInfo;
    public                 uint[]            Data;
    public FixedBigInteger(FixedBigInteger value, int bitLength = 0)
    {
        if (bitLength == 0)
            bitLength = DefaultDataBitWidth;
        DataBitWidth = bitLength;
        DataLength   = DataBitWidth >> DataShiftCount;
        CalculateMinDataLength(value.Data.Length);
        Data = new uint[DataLength];
        value.Data.CopyTo(Data, 0);
    }
    public FixedBigInteger(string value, int bitLength = 0)
    {
        if (bitLength == 0)
            bitLength = DefaultDataBitWidth;
        DataBitWidth = bitLength;
        DataLength   = DataBitWidth >> DataShiftCount;
        if (!TryParse(value, out var result))
            throw new Exception("TryParse Failed.");
        CalculateMinDataLength(result.Data.Length);
        Data = new uint[DataLength];
        result.Data.CopyTo(Data, 0);
    }
    public FixedBigInteger(byte value, int bitLength = 0)
    {
        if (bitLength == 0)
            bitLength = DefaultDataBitWidth;
        if (bitLength < 32)
            bitLength = 32;
        DataBitWidth = bitLength;
        DataLength   = DataBitWidth >> DataShiftCount;
        Data         = new uint[DataLength];
        Data[0]      = value;
    }
    public FixedBigInteger(bool value, int bitLength = 0)
    {
        if (bitLength == 0)
            bitLength = DefaultDataBitWidth;
        if (bitLength < 32)
            bitLength = 32;
        DataBitWidth = bitLength;
        DataLength   = DataBitWidth >> DataShiftCount;
        Data         = new uint[DataLength];
        Data[0]      = (uint) (value ? 1 : 0);
    }
    public FixedBigInteger(char value, int bitLength = 0)
    {
        if (bitLength == 0)
            bitLength = DefaultDataBitWidth;
        if (bitLength < 32)
            bitLength = 32;
        DataBitWidth = bitLength;
        DataLength   = DataBitWidth >> DataShiftCount;
        Data         = new uint[DataLength];
        Data[0]      = value;
    }
    public FixedBigInteger(BigDecimal value, int bitLength = 0)
    {
        if (bitLength == 0)
            bitLength = DefaultDataBitWidth;
        var ba = value.WholePart.ToByteArray();
        DataBitWidth = bitLength;
        DataLength   = DataBitWidth >> DataShiftCount;
        var len = ba.Length / DataSize;
        CalculateMinDataLength(len);
        Data = new uint[DataLength];
        for (var i = 0; i < Data.Length; i++)
            Data[i] = BitConverter.ToUInt32(ba, i * DataSize);
    }
    public FixedBigInteger(decimal value, int bitLength = 0)
    {
        if (bitLength == 0)
            bitLength = DefaultDataBitWidth;
        DataBitWidth = bitLength;
        DataLength   = DataBitWidth >> DataShiftCount;
        CalculateMinDataLength(3);
        Data = new uint[DataLength];
        if (value < 0)
        {
            var n = -new FixedBigInteger(-value, DataBitWidth);
            n.Data.CopyTo(Data, 0);
            return;
        }
        var bits = decimal.GetBits(value);
        Data[2] = (uint) bits[2];
        Data[1] = (uint) bits[1];
        Data[0] = (uint) bits[0];
    }
    public FixedBigInteger(double value, int bitLength = 0) : this((decimal) value, bitLength)
    {
    }
    public FixedBigInteger(float value, int bitLength = 0) : this((decimal) value, bitLength)
    {
    }
    public FixedBigInteger(short value, int bitLength = 0)
    {
        if (bitLength == 0)
            bitLength = DefaultDataBitWidth;
        if (bitLength < 32)
            bitLength = 32;
        DataBitWidth = bitLength;
        DataLength   = DataBitWidth >> DataShiftCount;
        Data         = new uint[DataLength];
        if (value < 0)
        {
            var n = -new FixedBigInteger(-(value + 1), DataBitWidth) - 1;
            n.Data.CopyTo(Data, 0);
            return;
        }
        Data[0] = (uint) value;
    }
    public FixedBigInteger()
    {
        DataBitWidth = DefaultDataBitWidth;
        DataLength   = DataBitWidth >> DataShiftCount;
        Data         = new uint[DataLength];
        Data[0]      = 0;
    }
    public FixedBigInteger(int value, int bitLength = 0)
    {
        if (bitLength == 0)
            bitLength = DefaultDataBitWidth;
        if (bitLength < 32)
            bitLength = 32;
        DataBitWidth = bitLength;
        DataLength   = DataBitWidth >> DataShiftCount;
        Data         = new uint[DataLength];
        if (value < 0)
        {
            var n = -new FixedBigInteger(-(value + 1), DataBitWidth) - 1;
            n.Data.CopyTo(Data, 0);
            return;
        }
        Data[0] = (uint) value;
    }
    public FixedBigInteger(long value, int bitLength = 0)
    {
        if (bitLength == 0)
            bitLength = DefaultDataBitWidth;
        if (bitLength < 64)
            bitLength = 64;
        DataBitWidth = bitLength;
        DataLength   = DataBitWidth >> DataShiftCount;
        Data         = new uint[DataLength];
        if (value < 0)
        {
            var n = -new FixedBigInteger(-(value + 1), DataBitWidth) - 1;
            n.Data.CopyTo(Data, 0);
            return;
        }
        Data[1] = (uint) ((value >> 32) & 0xffffffff);
        Data[0] = (uint) (value         & 0xffffffff);
    }
    public FixedBigInteger(sbyte value, int bitLength = 0)
    {
        if (bitLength == 0)
            bitLength = DefaultDataBitWidth;
        if (bitLength < 32)
            bitLength = 32;
        DataBitWidth = bitLength;
        DataLength   = DataBitWidth >> DataShiftCount;
        Data         = new uint[DataLength];
        if (value < 0)
        {
            var n = -new FixedBigInteger(-(value + 1), DataBitWidth) - 1;
            n.Data.CopyTo(Data, 0);
            return;
        }
        Data[0] = (uint) value;
    }
    public FixedBigInteger(ushort value, int bitLength = 0)
    {
        if (bitLength == 0)
            bitLength = DefaultDataBitWidth;
        if (bitLength < 32)
            bitLength = 32;
        DataBitWidth = bitLength;
        DataLength   = DataBitWidth >> DataShiftCount;
        Data         = new uint[DataLength];
        Data[0]      = value;
    }
    public FixedBigInteger(uint value, int bitLength = 0)
    {
        if (bitLength == 0)
            bitLength = DefaultDataBitWidth;
        if (bitLength < 32)
            bitLength = 32;
        DataBitWidth = bitLength;
        DataLength   = DataBitWidth >> DataShiftCount;
        Data         = new uint[DataLength];
        Data[0]      = value;
    }
    public FixedBigInteger(ulong value, int bitLength = 0)
    {
        if (bitLength == 0)
            bitLength = DefaultDataBitWidth;
        if (bitLength < 96)
            bitLength = 96;
        DataBitWidth = bitLength;
        DataLength   = DataBitWidth >> DataShiftCount;
        Data         = new uint[DataLength];
        Data[1]      = (uint) ((value >> 32) & 0xffffffff);
        Data[0]      = (uint) (value         & 0xffffffff);
    }
    public FixedBigInteger(BigInteger value, int bitLength = 0) : this(value.ToByteArray(), bitLength)
    {
    }
    public FixedBigInteger(Guid value, int bitLength = 0) : this(value.ToByteArray(), bitLength)
    {
    }
    public FixedBigInteger(byte[] value, int bitLength = 0)
    {
        if (bitLength == 0)
            bitLength = DefaultDataBitWidth;
        var minSize = value.Length / DataSize;
        if (value == null)
            throw new ArgumentNullException("value");
        DataBitWidth = bitLength;
        DataLength   = DataBitWidth >> DataShiftCount;
        CalculateMinDataLength(minSize);
        var byteCount      = value.Length;
        var isNegative     = byteCount > 0 && (value[byteCount - 1] & 0x80) == 0x80;
        var unalignedBytes = byteCount % DataSize;
        var dwordCount     = byteCount / DataSize + (unalignedBytes == 0 ? 0 : 1);
        Data = new uint[Math.Max(dwordCount, DataLength)];
        if (byteCount == 0)
            return;
        int curDword, curByte, byteInDword;
        curByte = 3;
        for (curDword = 0; curDword < dwordCount - (unalignedBytes == 0 ? 0 : 1); curDword++)
        {
            byteInDword = 0;
            while (byteInDword < DataSize)
            {
                Data[curDword] <<= 8;
                Data[curDword] |=  value[curByte];
                curByte--;
                byteInDword++;
            }
            curByte += 8;
        }
        if (unalignedBytes != 0)
        {
            if (isNegative)
                Data[dwordCount - 1] = 0xffffffff;
            for (curByte = byteCount - 1; curByte >= byteCount - unalignedBytes; curByte--)
            {
                Data[curDword] <<= 8;
                Data[curDword] |=  value[curByte];
            }
        }
    }
    public FixedBigInteger(int sign, uint[] array, int bitLength = 0)
    {
        if (array == null)
            throw new Exception("Array cannot be null.");
        if (bitLength == 0)
            bitLength = DefaultDataBitWidth;
        DataBitWidth = bitLength;
        DataLength   = DataBitWidth >> DataShiftCount;
        CalculateMinDataLength(array.Length);
        if (array.Length != DataLength)
            Array.Resize(ref array, DataLength);
        Data = new uint[DataLength];
        var ba = new byte[DataSize];
        for (var i = 0; i < Data.Length; i++)
        {
            Array.Copy(BitConverter.GetBytes(array[i]), 0, ba, 0, DataSize);
            Data[i] = BitConverter.ToUInt32(ba, 0);
        }
        if (sign < 0)
            Data[DataLength - 1] |= HiNeg;
        else
            Data[DataLength - 1] &= ~HiNeg;
    }
    public FixedBigInteger(uint[] array, int bitLength = 0)
    {
        if (array == null)
            throw new Exception("Array cannot be null.");
        if (bitLength == 0)
            bitLength = DefaultDataBitWidth;
        DataBitWidth = bitLength;
        DataLength   = DataBitWidth >> DataShiftCount;
        if (array.Length != DataLength)
            Array.Resize(ref array, DataLength);
        Data = new uint[DataLength];
        var ba = new byte[DataSize];
        for (var i = 0; i < Data.Length; i++)
        {
            Array.Copy(BitConverter.GetBytes(array[i]), 0, ba, 0, DataSize);
            Data[i] = BitConverter.ToUInt32(ba, 0);
        }
    }
    protected FixedBigInteger(SerializationInfo info, StreamingContext context)
    {
        SInfo = info;
    }
    [DebuggerBrowsable(DebuggerBrowsableState.Never)]
    private string DDisplay => ToString();
    public FixedBigInteger MaxValue
    {
        get
        {
            var r = new FixedBigInteger(0, DataBitWidth);
            for (var i = 0; i < r.Data.Length; ++i)
                r.Data[i] = uint.MaxValue;
            r.Data[r.Data.Length - 1] = int.MaxValue;
            return r;
        }
    }
    public int BitWidth
    {
        get
        {
            FixedBigInteger bw = 1;
            var             v  = new FixedBigInteger(this);
            while ((v >>= 1) > 0)
                bw++;
            if (bw < 8)
                bw = 8;
            while (bw % 8 != 0)
                bw++;
            return (int) bw;
        }
    }
    public int Sign
    {
        get
        {
            var allZero = true;
            var ba      = Data;
            for (var i = 0; i < ba.Length; i++)
                if (ba[i] != 0)
                {
                    allZero = false;
                    break;
                }
            if (allZero)
                return 0;
            return (Data[Data.Length - 1] & HiNeg) == 0 ? 1 : -1;
        }
    }
    public bool IsOne      => this       == 1;
    public bool IsEven     => (this & 1) == 0;
    public bool IsNegative => Sign       < 0;
    public bool IsZero
    {
        get
        {
            for (var i = 0; i < Data.Length; i++)
                if (Data[i] != 0)
                    return false;
            return true;
        }
    }
    public int DataUsed
    {
        get
        {
            var DataUsed = Data.Length;
            if (!IsNegative)
            {
                while (DataUsed > 1 && Data[DataUsed - 1] == 0)
                    --DataUsed;
                if (DataUsed == 0)
                    DataUsed = 1;
            }
            return DataUsed;
        }
    }
    int IComparable.CompareTo(object obj)
    {
        return Compare(this, obj);
    }
    public int CompareTo(FixedBigInteger value)
    {
        return Compare(this, value);
    }
    TypeCode IConvertible.GetTypeCode()
    {
        return TypeCode.Object;
    }
    bool IConvertible.ToBoolean(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return (bool) this;
    }
    byte IConvertible.ToByte(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return (byte) this;
    }
    char IConvertible.ToChar(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return (char) this;
    }
    DateTime IConvertible.ToDateTime(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        throw new InvalidCastException();
    }
    decimal IConvertible.ToDecimal(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return (decimal) this;
    }
    double IConvertible.ToDouble(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return (double) this;
    }
    short IConvertible.ToInt16(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return (short) this;
    }
    int IConvertible.ToInt32(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return (int) this;
    }
    long IConvertible.ToInt64(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return (long) this;
    }
    sbyte IConvertible.ToSByte(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return (sbyte) this;
    }
    float IConvertible.ToSingle(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return (float) this;
    }
    string IConvertible.ToString(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return ToString(null, provider);
    }
    public object ToType(Type conversionType, IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        object value;
        if (TryConvert(conversionType, provider, out value))
            return value;
        throw new InvalidCastException();
    }
    ushort IConvertible.ToUInt16(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        if (Data[1] != 0)
            throw new OverflowException();
        return Convert.ToUInt16(Data[0]);
    }
    uint IConvertible.ToUInt32(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        if (Data[1] != 0)
            throw new OverflowException();
        return Convert.ToUInt32(Data[0]);
    }
    ulong IConvertible.ToUInt64(IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        if (Data[1] != 0)
            return ((ulong) Data[1] << 32) | Data[0];
        return Data[0];
    }
    public bool Equals(FixedBigInteger obj)
    {
        if (ReferenceEquals(obj, null))
            return false;
        if (ReferenceEquals(this, obj))
            return true;
        if (Data.Length != obj.Data.Length)
        {
            var len = Math.Max(Data.Length, obj.Data.Length);
            if (Data.Length < len)
            {
                var tData = new uint[len];
                Array.Copy(Data, 0, tData, 0, Data.Length);
                Data = tData;
            }
            if (obj.Data.Length < len)
                Resize(ref obj, len);
        }
        if (Sign != obj.Sign)
            return false;
        for (var i = 0; i < Data.Length; i++)
            if (Data[i] != obj.Data[i])
                return false;
        return true;
    }
    public string ToString(string format, IFormatProvider formatProvider)
    {
        if (formatProvider == null)
            formatProvider = CultureInfo.CurrentCulture;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(format))
        {
            var ch = format[0];
            if (ch == 'x' || ch == 'X')
            {
                int.TryParse(format.Substring(1).Trim(), out var min);
                return ToHexString(ch == 'X');
            }
            if (ch != 'G' && ch != 'g' && ch != 'D' && ch != 'd')
                throw new NotSupportedException("Not supported format: " + format);
        }
        return ToString((NumberFormatInfo) formatProvider.GetFormat(typeof(NumberFormatInfo)), 10);
    }
    public void GetObjectData(SerializationInfo info, StreamingContext context)
    {
        info.AddValue("Bits", DataBitWidth);
        info.AddValue("Data", Data, typeof(uint[]));
    }
    private static void CalculateMinDataLength(int minSize)
    {
        if (minSize > DataLength)
        {
            DataBitWidth = 32 * minSize;
            DataLength   = minSize;
        }
    }
    public void OnDeserialization(object sender)
    {
        if (SInfo == null)
            return;
        DataBitWidth = SInfo.GetInt32("Bits");
        if (DataBitWidth != 0)
        {
            DataLength = DataBitWidth >> DataShiftCount;
            var array = (uint[]) SInfo.GetValue("Data", typeof(uint[]));
            if (array == null)
                throw new Exception("Array cannot be null.");
            if (array.Length != DataLength)
                Array.Resize(ref array, DataLength);
            Data = new uint[DataLength];
            var ba = new byte[4];
            for (var i = 0; i < DataLength; i++)
            {
                Array.Copy(BitConverter.GetBytes(array[i]), 0, ba, 0, DataSize);
                Data[i] = BitConverter.ToUInt32(ba, 0);
            }
        }
    }
    public static int GetSign(uint[] value)
    {
        var allZero = true;
        for (var i = 0; i < value.Length; i++)
            if (value[i] != 0)
            {
                allZero = false;
                break;
            }
        if (allZero)
            return 0;
        return (value[value.Length - 1] & HiNeg) == 0 ? 1 : -1;
    }
    private static int GetDataUsed(uint[] array)
    {
        var neg      = GetSign(array) < 0;
        var DataUsed = array.Length;
        if (!neg)
        {
            while (DataUsed > 1 && array[DataUsed - 1] == 0)
                --DataUsed;
            if (DataUsed == 0)
                DataUsed = 1;
        }
        return DataUsed;
    }
    public int GetDecimalPlaces()
    {
        var dPlaces = 0;
        if (Sign == 0)
            return 1;
        var a = new FixedBigInteger(this);
        if (Sign < 0)
            try
            {
                a = -a;
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                return 0;
            }
        var biRadix = new FixedBigInteger(10, DataBitWidth);
        while (a > 0)
            try
            {
                Divide(a, biRadix, out var remainder, out var quotient);
                a = quotient;
                dPlaces++;
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                break;
            }
        return dPlaces;
    }
    private uint[] TwosComplement(uint[] d)
    {
        var  i = 0;
        uint v = 0;
        for (; i < d.Length; i++)
        {
            v    = ~d[i] + 1;
            d[i] = v;
            if (v != 0)
            {
                i++;
                break;
            }
        }
        if (v != 0)
        {
            for (; i < d.Length; i++)
                d[i] = ~d[i];
        }
        else
        {
            Array.Resize(ref d, d.Length + 1);
            d[d.Length - 1] = 1;
        }
        return d;
    }
    public void ConstructFromArray(byte[] array)
    {
        if (array == null)
            throw new ArgumentNullException("value");
        var byteCount      = array.Length;
        var isNegative     = byteCount > 0 && (array[byteCount - 1] & 0x80) == 0x80;
        var unalignedBytes = byteCount % DataSize;
        var dwordCount     = byteCount / DataSize + (unalignedBytes == 0 ? 0 : 1);
        Data = new uint[Math.Max(dwordCount, DataLength)];
        if (byteCount == 0)
            return;
        int curDword, curByte, byteInDword;
        curByte = 3;
        for (curDword = 0; curDword < dwordCount - (unalignedBytes == 0 ? 0 : 1); curDword++)
        {
            byteInDword = 0;
            while (byteInDword < DataSize)
            {
                Data[curDword] <<= 8;
                Data[curDword] |=  array[curByte];
                curByte--;
                byteInDword++;
            }
            curByte += 8;
        }
        if (unalignedBytes != 0)
        {
            if (isNegative)
                Data[dwordCount - 1] = 0xffffffff;
            for (curByte = byteCount - 1; curByte >= byteCount - unalignedBytes; curByte--)
            {
                Data[curDword] <<= 8;
                Data[curDword] |=  array[curByte];
            }
        }
    }
    private static byte[] ToByteArray(ulong[] value)
    {
        var ba = new byte[value.Length << 3];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, ba, 0, value.Length << 3);
        return ba;
    }
    private static byte[] ToByteArray(uint[] value)
    {
        var ba = new byte[value.Length << 2];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(value, 0, ba, 0, value.Length << 2);
        return ba;
    }
    public override int GetHashCode()
    {
        var hash = 0x811c9dc5;
        for (var i = 0; i < Data.Length; i++)
        {
            hash ^= ((hash << 13) | (hash >> 19)) ^ Data[i];
            hash *= 0x1000193;
        }
        return (int) hash;
    }
    public override bool Equals(object obj)
    {
        return base.Equals(obj);
    }
    public override string ToString()
    {
        return ToString(null, null);
    }
    public string ToString(string format)
    {
        return ToString(format, null);
    }
    public string ToHexString(bool caps)
    {
        var bytes = ToByteArray().Invert();
        var sb    = new StringBuilder();
        var x     = caps ? "X" : "x";
        foreach (var b in bytes)
        {
            var hex = b.ToString($"{x}2");
            sb.Append(hex);
        }
        return sb.ToString();
    }
    private string ToString(NumberFormatInfo info, int radix)
    {
        if (radix < 2 || radix > 36)
            throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("radix");
        if (Sign == 0)
            return "0";
        var negative = Sign < 0;
        var a        = new FixedBigInteger(this);
        if (negative)
            try
            {
                a = -a;
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
            }
        var          biRadix = new FixedBigInteger(radix, DataBitWidth);
        const string charSet = "0123456789abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz";
        var          al      = new ArrayList();
        while (a > 0)
            try
            {
                Divide(a, biRadix, out var remainder, out var quotient);
                al.Insert(0, charSet[(int) remainder.Data[0]]);
                a = quotient;
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                break;
            }
        var result = new string((char[]) al.ToArray(typeof(char)));
        if (radix == 10 && negative)
            return "-" + result;
        return result;
    }
    public static FixedBigInteger Abs(FixedBigInteger value)
    {
        if (ReferenceEquals(value, null))
            throw new ArgumentNullException("value");
        if (value.Sign < 0)
            return -value;
        return value;
    }
    public bool TryConvert(Type conversionType, IFormatProvider provider, out object value)
    {
        if (conversionType == typeof(bool))
        {
            value = (bool) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(byte))
        {
            value = (byte) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(char))
        {
            value = (char) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(decimal))
        {
            value = (decimal) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(double))
        {
            value = (double) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(short))
        {
            value = (short) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(int))
        {
            value = (int) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(long))
        {
            value = (long) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(sbyte))
        {
            value = (sbyte) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(float))
        {
            value = (float) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(string))
        {
            value = ToString(null, provider);
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(ushort))
        {
            value = (ushort) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(uint))
        {
            value = (uint) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(ulong))
        {
            value = (ulong) this;
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(byte[]))
        {
            value = ToByteArray();
            return true;
        }
        if (conversionType == typeof(Guid))
        {
            value = new Guid(ToByteArray());
            return true;
        }
        value = null;
        return false;
    }
    public static FixedBigInteger Parse(string value)
    {
        return Parse(value, NumberStyles.Integer, NumberFormatInfo.CurrentInfo);
    }
    public static FixedBigInteger Parse(string value, NumberStyles style)
    {
        return Parse(value, style, NumberFormatInfo.CurrentInfo);
    }
    public static FixedBigInteger Parse(string value, IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        return Parse(value, NumberStyles.Integer, NumberFormatInfo.GetInstance(provider));
    }
    public static FixedBigInteger Parse(string value, NumberStyles style, IFormatProvider provider)
    {
        if (!TryParse(value, style, provider, out var result))
            throw new Exception($"TryParse value {value} failure.");
        return result;
    }
    public static bool TryParse(string value, out FixedBigInteger result)
    {
        return TryParse(value, NumberStyles.Integer, NumberFormatInfo.CurrentInfo, out result);
    }
    public static bool TryParse(string value, NumberStyles style, IFormatProvider provider, out FixedBigInteger result)
    {
        result = 0;
        if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(value))
            return false;
        if (value.StartsWith("x", StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase))
        {
            style |= NumberStyles.AllowHexSpecifier;
            value =  value.Substring(1);
        }
        else
        {
            if (value.StartsWith("0x", StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase))
            {
                style |= NumberStyles.AllowHexSpecifier;
                value =  value.Substring(2);
            }
        }
        if ((style & NumberStyles.AllowHexSpecifier) == NumberStyles.AllowHexSpecifier)
            return TryParseNum(value, 16, out result);
        return TryParseNum(value, 10, out result);
    }
    public static bool TryParseNum(string digits, int radix, out FixedBigInteger result)
    {
        result = new FixedBigInteger(0, DataBitWidth);
        if (digits == null)
            return false;
        var multiplier = new FixedBigInteger(1, DataBitWidth);
        digits = digits.ToUpper(CultureInfo.CurrentCulture).Trim();
        var nDigits = digits[0] == '-' ? 1 : 0;
        for (var idx = digits.Length - 1; idx >= nDigits; idx--)
        {
            var d = (int) digits[idx];
            if (d >= '0' && d <= '9')
                d -= '0';
            else if (d >= 'A' && d <= 'Z')
                d = d - 'A' + 10;
            else
                return false;
            if (d >= radix)
                return false;
            result     += multiplier * d;
            multiplier *= radix;
        }
        if (digits[0] == '-')
            result = -result;
        return true;
    }
    public static int Compare(FixedBigInteger left, object right)
    {
        if (right is FixedBigInteger)
            return Compare(left, (FixedBigInteger) right);
        if (right is bool)
            return Compare(left, new FixedBigInteger((bool) right, DataBitWidth));
        if (right is byte)
            return Compare(left, new FixedBigInteger((byte) right, DataBitWidth));
        if (right is char)
            return Compare(left, new FixedBigInteger((char) right, DataBitWidth));
        if (right is decimal)
            return Compare(left, new FixedBigInteger((decimal) right, DataBitWidth));
        if (right is double)
            return Compare(left, new FixedBigInteger((double) right, DataBitWidth));
        if (right is short)
            return Compare(left, new FixedBigInteger((short) right, DataBitWidth));
        if (right is int)
            return Compare(left, new FixedBigInteger((int) right, DataBitWidth));
        if (right is long)
            return Compare(left, new FixedBigInteger((long) right, DataBitWidth));
        if (right is sbyte)
            return Compare(left, new FixedBigInteger((sbyte) right, DataBitWidth));
        if (right is float)
            return Compare(left, new FixedBigInteger((float) right, DataBitWidth));
        if (right is ushort)
            return Compare(left, new FixedBigInteger((ushort) right, DataBitWidth));
        if (right is uint)
            return Compare(left, new FixedBigInteger((uint) right, DataBitWidth));
        if (right is ulong)
            return Compare(left, new FixedBigInteger((ulong) right, DataBitWidth));
        var bytes = right as byte[];
        if (bytes != null)
            return Compare(left, new FixedBigInteger(bytes, DataBitWidth));
        if (right is Guid)
            return Compare(left, new FixedBigInteger((Guid) right, DataBitWidth));
        throw new ArgumentException();
    }
    public static int Compare(FixedBigInteger left, FixedBigInteger right)
    {
        MakeLikeLengths(ref left, ref right);
        if (ReferenceEquals(left, right))
            return 0;
        if (left.Sign >= 0 && right.Sign < 0)
            return 1;
        if (left.Sign < 0 && right.Sign >= 0)
            return -1;
        for (var i = left.Data.Length - 1; i > 0; i--)
            if (left.Data[i] != right.Data[i])
                return left.Data[i].CompareTo(right.Data[i]);
        return left.Data[0].CompareTo(right.Data[0]);
    }
    public static implicit operator FixedBigInteger(bool value)
    {
        return new FixedBigInteger(value, DataBitWidth);
    }
    public static implicit operator FixedBigInteger(byte value)
    {
        return new FixedBigInteger(value, DataBitWidth);
    }
    public static implicit operator FixedBigInteger(char value)
    {
        return new FixedBigInteger(value, DataBitWidth);
    }
    public static explicit operator FixedBigInteger(decimal value)
    {
        return new FixedBigInteger(value, DataBitWidth);
    }
    public static explicit operator FixedBigInteger(double value)
    {
        return new FixedBigInteger(value, DataBitWidth);
    }
    public static implicit operator FixedBigInteger(short value)
    {
        return new FixedBigInteger(value, DataBitWidth);
    }
    public static implicit operator FixedBigInteger(int value)
    {
        return new FixedBigInteger(value, DataBitWidth);
    }
    public static implicit operator FixedBigInteger(long value)
    {
        return new FixedBigInteger(value, DataBitWidth);
    }
    public static implicit operator FixedBigInteger(sbyte value)
    {
        return new FixedBigInteger(value, DataBitWidth);
    }
    public static explicit operator FixedBigInteger(float value)
    {
        return new FixedBigInteger(value, DataBitWidth);
    }
    public static implicit operator FixedBigInteger(ushort value)
    {
        return new FixedBigInteger(value, DataBitWidth);
    }
    public static implicit operator FixedBigInteger(uint value)
    {
        return new FixedBigInteger(value, DataBitWidth);
    }
    public static implicit operator FixedBigInteger(ulong value)
    {
        return new FixedBigInteger(value, DataBitWidth);
    }
    public static implicit operator FixedBigInteger(BigInteger value)
    {
        return new FixedBigInteger(value, DataBitWidth);
    }
    public static implicit operator FixedBigInteger(BigDecimal value)
    {
        return new FixedBigInteger(value, DataBitWidth);
    }
    public static explicit operator bool(FixedBigInteger value)
    {
        return (byte) value.Data[0] != 0;
    }
    public static explicit operator byte(FixedBigInteger value)
    {
        return (byte) value.Data[0];
    }
    public static explicit operator char(FixedBigInteger value)
    {
        return (char) (ushort) value.Data[0];
    }
    public static explicit operator decimal(FixedBigInteger value)
    {
        if (value.Sign == 0)
            return 0;
        if (value.Data.Length == 1)
            return new decimal((int) value.Data[0], 0, 0, value.Sign < 0, 0);
        if (value.Data.Length == 2)
            return new decimal((int) value.Data[0], (int) value.Data[1], 0, value.Sign < 0, 0);
        if (value.Data.Length == 3)
            return new decimal((int) value.Data[0], (int) value.Data[1], (int) value.Data[2], value.Sign < 0, 0);
        throw new ArgumentException("Value length exceeds decimal length.");
    }
    public static explicit operator double(FixedBigInteger value)
    {
        if (value.Sign == 0)
            return 0;
        var nfi = CultureInfo.InvariantCulture.NumberFormat;
        if (!double.TryParse(value.ToString(nfi, 10), NumberStyles.Number, nfi, out var d))
            throw new OverflowException();
        return d;
    }
    public static explicit operator float(FixedBigInteger value)
    {
        if (value.Sign == 0)
            return 0;
        var nfi = CultureInfo.InvariantCulture.NumberFormat;
        if (!float.TryParse(value.ToString(nfi, 10), NumberStyles.Number, nfi, out var f))
            throw new OverflowException();
        return f;
    }
    public static explicit operator short(FixedBigInteger value)
    {
        if (value.Data[0] > 0x8000)
            throw new OverflowException();
        if (value.Data[0] == 0x8000 && value.Sign > 0)
            throw new OverflowException();
        return (short) ((int) value.Data[0] * value.Sign);
    }
    public static explicit operator int(FixedBigInteger value)
    {
        if (value.Sign == 0)
            return 0;
        return (int) value.Data[0] * value.Sign;
    }
    public static explicit operator long(FixedBigInteger value)
    {
        if (value.Sign == 0)
            return 0;
        if (value.Data[0] > int.MaxValue)
            throw new OverflowException();
        if (value.Data.Length > 1)
            if (value.Data[1] != 0)
                return (long) (((ulong) value.Data[1] << 32) | value.Data[0]) * value.Sign;
        return value.Data[0] * value.Sign;
    }
    public static explicit operator uint(FixedBigInteger value)
    {
        if (value.Sign == 0)
            return 0;
        return value.Data[0];
    }
    public static explicit operator ushort(FixedBigInteger value)
    {
        if (value.Sign == 0)
            return 0;
        return (ushort) value.Data[0];
    }
    public static explicit operator ulong(FixedBigInteger value)
    {
        if (value.Data.Length > 1)
            if (value.Data[1] != 0)
                return ((ulong) value.Data[1] << 32) | value.Data[0];
        return value.Data[0];
    }
    public static explicit operator BigInteger(FixedBigInteger value)
    {
        return new BigInteger(value.ToByteArray());
    }
    public static bool operator >(FixedBigInteger left, FixedBigInteger right)
    {
        return left.CompareTo(right) > 0;
    }
    private static void MakeLikeLengths(ref FixedBigInteger left, ref FixedBigInteger right)
    {
        if (left.Data.Length != right.Data.Length)
        {
            var len = Math.Max(left.Data.Length, right.Data.Length);
            Resize(ref left,  len);
            Resize(ref right, len);
        }
    }
    private static void Resize(ref FixedBigInteger value, int newSize)
    {
        var IsNeg = value.IsNegative;
        var nData = new uint[newSize];
        var len   = value.Data.Length;
        for (var i = 0; i < len; i++)
        {
            nData[i] = value.Data[i];
            if (IsNeg && i == len - 1)
                nData[i] &= ~HiNeg;
        }
        if (IsNeg)
            nData[nData.Length - 1] |= HiNeg;
        value.Data = (uint[]) nData.Clone();
    }
    public static bool operator <(FixedBigInteger left, FixedBigInteger right)
    {
        return Compare(left, right) < 0;
    }
    public static bool operator >=(FixedBigInteger left, FixedBigInteger right)
    {
        return Compare(left, right) >= 0;
    }
    public static bool operator <=(FixedBigInteger left, FixedBigInteger right)
    {
        return Compare(left, right) <= 0;
    }
    public static bool operator !=(FixedBigInteger left, FixedBigInteger right)
    {
        return !left.Equals(right);
    }
    public static bool operator ==(FixedBigInteger left, FixedBigInteger right)
    {
        return left.Equals(right);
    }
    public static FixedBigInteger operator +(FixedBigInteger value)
    {
        return value;
    }
    public static FixedBigInteger operator ~(FixedBigInteger value)
    {
        var da = new uint[DataLength];
        for (var idx = 0; idx < DataLength; idx++)
            da[idx] = ~value.Data[idx];
        return new FixedBigInteger(da, DataBitWidth);
    }
    public static FixedBigInteger operator -(FixedBigInteger value)
    {
        if (ReferenceEquals(value, null))
            throw new ArgumentNullException("value");
        if (value.IsZero)
            return Zero;
        var da = new uint[DataLength];
        for (var i = 0; i < da.Length; i++)
            da[i] = ~value.Data[i];
        var carry = true;
        var index = 0;
        while (carry && index < da.Length)
        {
            var val = (long) da[index] + 1;
            da[index] = (uint) (val & AllBits);
            carry     = val >> DataSizeBits > 0;
            index++;
        }
        return new FixedBigInteger(da, DataBitWidth);
    }
    public static FixedBigInteger operator ++(FixedBigInteger value)
    {
        return value + 1;
    }
    public static FixedBigInteger operator --(FixedBigInteger value)
    {
        return value - 1;
    }
    public static FixedBigInteger Negate(FixedBigInteger value)
    {
        var ldata = (uint[]) value.Data.Clone();
        for (var i = 0; i < value.Data.Length; i++)
            ldata[i] = ~value.Data[i];
        return new FixedBigInteger(value.Sign, ldata, DataBitWidth);
    }
    public static FixedBigInteger operator +(FixedBigInteger left, FixedBigInteger right)
    {
        if (right.IsZero)
            return left;
        if (left.IsZero)
            return right;
        MakeLikeLengths(ref left, ref right);
        var  dl     = left.Data.Length > right.Data.Length ? left.Data.Length : right.Data.Length;
        var  result = new uint[dl];
        long carry  = 0;
        for (var i = 0; i < dl; i++)
        {
            var sum = left.Data[i] + (long) right.Data[i] + carry;
            carry     = sum >> 32;
            result[i] = (uint) (sum & 0xFFFFFFFF);
        }
        if (carry != 0)
        {
            var idx = 0;
            while (idx < result.Length - 1)
            {
                if (result[idx] == 0)
                    break;
                idx++;
            }
            result[idx] = (uint) carry;
        }
        return new FixedBigInteger(left.Sign * right.Sign, result, DataBitWidth);
    }
    public static FixedBigInteger operator -(FixedBigInteger left, FixedBigInteger right)
    {
        if (right.IsZero)
            return left;
        if (left.IsZero)
            return -right;
        MakeLikeLengths(ref left, ref right);
        var  da    = new uint[DataLength];
        long carry = 0;
        for (var i = 0; i < DataLength && i < left.Data.Length && i < right.Data.Length; i++)
        {
            var diff = left.Data[i] - (long) right.Data[i] - carry;
            da[i] = (uint) (diff & AllBits);
            carry = diff < 0 ? 1 : 0;
        }
        return new FixedBigInteger(da, DataBitWidth);
    }
    public static FixedBigInteger Add(FixedBigInteger left, FixedBigInteger right)
    {
        return left + right;
    }
    public static FixedBigInteger Subtract(FixedBigInteger left, FixedBigInteger right)
    {
        return left - right;
    }
    public static FixedBigInteger Divide(FixedBigInteger dividend, FixedBigInteger divisor)
    {
        if (divisor == 0)
            throw new DivideByZeroException();
        return DivRem(dividend, divisor, out var integer);
    }
    public static void Divide(FixedBigInteger dividend, FixedBigInteger divisor, out FixedBigInteger remainder, out FixedBigInteger quotient)
    {
        if (divisor == 0)
            throw new DivideByZeroException();
        DivRem(dividend.Data, divisor.Data, out var quo, out var rem);
        remainder = new FixedBigInteger(1,                            rem, DataBitWidth);
        quotient  = new FixedBigInteger(dividend.Sign * divisor.Sign, quo, DataBitWidth);
    }
    public static FixedBigInteger DivRem(FixedBigInteger dividend, FixedBigInteger divisor, out FixedBigInteger remainder)
    {
        if (divisor == 0)
            throw new DivideByZeroException();
        DivRem(dividend.Data, divisor.Data, out var quotient, out var rem);
        remainder = new FixedBigInteger(1, rem, DataBitWidth);
        return new FixedBigInteger(dividend.Sign * divisor.Sign, quotient, DataBitWidth);
    }
    private static void DivRem(uint[] dividend, uint[] divisor, out uint[] quotient, out uint[] remainder)
    {
        const ulong hiBit       = 0x100000000;
        var         divisorLen  = GetLength(divisor);
        var         dividendLen = GetLength(dividend);
        if (divisorLen <= 1)
        {
            ulong rem = 0;
            var   div = divisor[0];
            quotient  = new uint[dividendLen];
            remainder = new uint[1];
            for (var i = dividendLen - 1; i >= 0; i--)
            {
                rem *= hiBit;
                rem += dividend[i];
                var q = rem / div;
                rem         -= q * div;
                quotient[i] =  (uint) q;
            }
            remainder[0] = (uint) rem;
            return;
        }
        if (dividendLen >= divisorLen)
        {
            var shift        = GetNormalizeShift(divisor[divisorLen - 1]);
            var normDividend = new uint[dividendLen + 1];
            var normDivisor  = new uint[divisorLen];
            Normalize(dividend, dividendLen, normDividend, shift);
            Normalize(divisor,  divisorLen,  normDivisor,  shift);
            quotient = new uint[dividendLen - divisorLen + 1];
            for (var j = dividendLen - divisorLen; j >= 0; j--)
            {
                var dx = hiBit * normDividend[j + divisorLen] + normDividend[j + divisorLen - 1];
                var qj = dx / normDivisor[divisorLen                                        - 1];
                dx -= qj * normDivisor[divisorLen - 1];
                do
                {
                    if (qj < hiBit && qj * normDivisor[divisorLen - 2] <= dx * hiBit + normDividend[j + divisorLen - 2])
                        break;
                    qj -= 1L;
                    dx += normDivisor[divisorLen - 1];
                } while (dx < hiBit);
                ulong di = 0;
                ulong dj;
                var   index = 0;
                while (index < divisorLen)
                {
                    var dqj = normDivisor[index] * qj;
                    dj                      = normDividend[index + j] - (uint) dqj - di;
                    normDividend[index + j] = (uint) dj;
                    dqj                     = dqj >> 32;
                    dj                      = dj  >> 32;
                    di                      = dqj - dj;
                    index++;
                }
                dj                           = normDividend[j + divisorLen] - di;
                normDividend[j + divisorLen] = (uint) dj;
                quotient[j]                  = (uint) qj;
                if ((long) dj < 0)
                {
                    quotient[j]--;
                    ulong sum = 0;
                    for (index = 0; index < divisorLen; index++)
                    {
                        sum                     = normDivisor[index] + normDividend[j + index] + sum;
                        normDividend[j + index] = (uint) sum;
                        sum                     = sum >> 32;
                    }
                    sum += normDividend[j + divisorLen];
                    normDividend[j        + divisorLen] = (uint) sum;
                }
            }
            remainder = Unnormalize(normDividend, shift);
            return;
        }
        quotient  = new uint[1];
        remainder = dividend;
    }
    private static int GetLength(uint[] uints)
    {
        var index = uints.Length - 1;
        while (index >= 0 && uints[index] == 0)
            index--;
        return index + 1;
    }
    private static int GetNormalizeShift(uint ui)
    {
        var shift = 0;
        if ((ui & 0xffff0000) == 0)
        {
            ui    =  ui << 16;
            shift += 16;
        }
        if ((ui & 0xff000000) == 0)
        {
            ui    =  ui << 8;
            shift += 8;
        }
        if ((ui & 0xf0000000) == 0)
        {
            ui    =  ui << 4;
            shift += 4;
        }
        if ((ui & 0xc0000000) == 0)
        {
            ui    =  ui << 2;
            shift += 2;
        }
        if ((ui & 0x80000000) == 0)
            shift++;
        return shift;
    }
    private static uint[] Unnormalize(uint[] normalized, int shift)
    {
        var len          = GetLength(normalized);
        var unnormalized = new uint[len];
        if (shift > 0)
        {
            var  rshift = 32 - shift;
            uint r      = 0;
            for (var i = len - 1; i >= 0; i--)
            {
                unnormalized[i] = (normalized[i] >> shift) | r;
                r               = normalized[i] << rshift;
            }
        }
        else
        {
            for (var j = 0; j < len; j++)
                unnormalized[j] = normalized[j];
        }
        return unnormalized;
    }
    private static void Normalize(uint[] unormalized, int len, uint[] normalized, int shift)
    {
        int  i;
        uint n = 0;
        if (shift > 0)
        {
            var rShift = 32 - shift;
            for (i = 0; i < len; i++)
            {
                normalized[i] = (unormalized[i] << shift) | n;
                n             = unormalized[i] >> rShift;
            }
        }
        else
        {
            i = 0;
            while (i < len)
            {
                normalized[i] = unormalized[i];
                i++;
            }
        }
        while (i < normalized.Length)
            normalized[i++] = 0;
        if (n != 0)
            normalized[len] = n;
    }
    public static FixedBigInteger Remainder(FixedBigInteger dividend, FixedBigInteger divisor)
    {
        DivRem(dividend, divisor, out var remainder);
        return remainder;
    }
    public static FixedBigInteger Max(FixedBigInteger left, FixedBigInteger right)
    {
        return left.CompareTo(right) < 0 ? right : left;
    }
    public static FixedBigInteger Min(FixedBigInteger left, FixedBigInteger right)
    {
        return left.CompareTo(right) <= 0 ? left : right;
    }
    public static int GetBitWidth(FixedBigInteger n)
    {
        FixedBigInteger bw = 1;
        var             v  = n;
        while ((v >>= 1) > 0)
            bw++;
        if (bw < 8)
            bw = 8;
        while (bw % 8 != 0)
            bw++;
        return (int) bw;
    }
    public static int GetBitWidth<T>(T n)
    {
        ulong   bw = 1;
        dynamic v  = new FixedBigInteger((dynamic) n, 0);
        while ((v >>= 1) > 0)
            bw++;
        if (bw < 8)
            bw = 8;
        while (bw % 8 != 0)
            bw++;
        return (int) bw;
    }
    public static FixedBigInteger operator %(FixedBigInteger dividend, FixedBigInteger divisor)
    {
        return Remainder(dividend, divisor);
    }
    public static FixedBigInteger operator /(FixedBigInteger dividend, FixedBigInteger divisor)
    {
        return Divide(dividend, divisor);
    }
    public ulong[] ToUIn64Array()
    {
        var al = Data.Length >> 1;
        if (al * 2 != Data.Length)
            al++;
        var arr = new ulong[al];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(Data, 0, arr, 0, Data.Length << 2);
        return arr;
    }
    public uint[] ToUIn32Array()
    {
        return Data;
    }
    public byte[] ToByteArray()
    {
        var ba = new byte[DataUsed * DataSize];
        Buffer.BlockCopy(Data, 0, ba, 0, DataUsed * DataSize);
        return ba;
    }
    private void TrimToMsb()
    {
        var dataUsed = Data.Length;
        while (dataUsed > 1 && Data[dataUsed - 1] == 0)
            --dataUsed;
        if (dataUsed != Data.Length)
        {
            var tData = new uint[dataUsed];
            for (var i = 0; i < dataUsed; i++)
                tData[i] = Data[i];
            Data = (uint[]) tData.Clone();
        }
    }
    public static FixedBigInteger Multiply(FixedBigInteger left, FixedBigInteger right)
    {
        if (left == 0 || right == 0)
            return Zero;
        if (left == 1 && right != 1)
            return right;
        if (left != 1 && right == 1)
            return left;
        if (left == 1 && right == 1)
            return One;
        var xInts   = left.Data;
        var yInts   = right.Data;
        var mulInts = new uint[Math.Max(xInts.Length, yInts.Length) << 1];
        for (var i = 0; i < xInts.Length; i++)
        {
            var   index     = i;
            ulong remainder = 0;
            foreach (var yi in yInts)
            {
                remainder        = remainder + (ulong) xInts[i] * yi + mulInts[index];
                mulInts[index++] = (uint) remainder;
                remainder        = remainder >> 32;
            }
            while (remainder != 0)
            {
                remainder        += mulInts[index];
                mulInts[index++] =  (uint) remainder;
                remainder        =  remainder >> 32;
            }
        }
        var du = GetDataUsed(mulInts);
        Array.Resize(ref mulInts, du);
        return new FixedBigInteger(left.Sign * right.Sign, mulInts);
    }
    public static FixedBigInteger operator *(FixedBigInteger left, FixedBigInteger right)
    {
        return Multiply(left, right);
    }
    public static FixedBigInteger operator >>(FixedBigInteger value, int shift)
    {
        if (shift == 0)
            return value;
        if (shift == int.MinValue)
            return value << int.MaxValue << 1;
        if (shift < 0)
            return value << -shift;
        var xd          = value.Data;
        var shiftAmount = 32;
        var invShift    = 0;
        var bufLen      = xd.Length;
        while (bufLen > 1 && xd[bufLen - 1] == 0)
            bufLen--;
        for (var count = shift; count > 0; count -= shiftAmount)
        {
            if (count < shiftAmount)
            {
                shiftAmount = count;
                invShift    = 32 - shiftAmount;
            }
            ulong carry = 0;
            for (var i = bufLen - 1; i >= 0; i--)
            {
                var val = (ulong) xd[i] >> shiftAmount;
                val   |= carry;
                carry =  (ulong) xd[i] << invShift;
                xd[i] =  (uint) val;
            }
        }
        return new FixedBigInteger(value.Sign, xd, DataBitWidth);
    }
    public static FixedBigInteger operator <<(FixedBigInteger value, int shift)
    {
        if (shift == 0)
            return value;
        if (shift == int.MinValue)
            return value >> int.MaxValue >> 1;
        if (shift < 0)
            return value >> -shift;
        var digitShift = shift / 32;
        var smallShift = shift - digitShift * 32;
        var xd         = value.Data;
        var xl         = xd.Length;
        var zd         = new uint[xl + digitShift + 1];
        if (smallShift == 0)
        {
            for (var index = 0; index < xl; ++index)
                zd[index + digitShift] = xd[index];
        }
        else
        {
            var  carryShift = 32 - smallShift;
            uint carry      = 0;
            int  index;
            for (index = 0; index < xl; ++index)
            {
                var rot = xd[index];
                zd[index + digitShift] = (rot << smallShift) | carry;
                carry                  = rot >> carryShift;
            }
            zd[index + digitShift] = carry;
        }
        return new FixedBigInteger(value.Sign, zd, DataBitWidth);
    }
    public static FixedBigInteger operator |(FixedBigInteger left, FixedBigInteger right)
    {
        if (left == 0)
            return right;
        if (right == 0)
            return left;
        var z    = new uint[Math.Max(left.Data.Length, right.Data.Length)];
        var lExt = left.Sign  < 0 ? uint.MaxValue : 0U;
        var rExt = right.Sign < 0 ? uint.MaxValue : 0U;
        for (var i = 0; i < z.Length; i++)
        {
            var xu = i < left.Data.Length ? left.Data[i] : lExt;
            var yu = i < right.Data.Length ? right.Data[i] : rExt;
            z[i] = xu | yu;
        }
        return new FixedBigInteger(left.Sign * right.Sign, z, DataBitWidth);
    }
    public static FixedBigInteger operator ^(FixedBigInteger left, FixedBigInteger right)
    {
        var z    = new uint[Math.Max(left.Data.Length, right.Data.Length)];
        var lExt = left.Sign  < 0 ? uint.MaxValue : 0U;
        var rExt = right.Sign < 0 ? uint.MaxValue : 0U;
        for (var i = 0; i < z.Length; i++)
        {
            var xu = i < left.Data.Length ? left.Data[i] : lExt;
            var yu = i < right.Data.Length ? right.Data[i] : rExt;
            z[i] = xu ^ yu;
        }
        return new FixedBigInteger(left.Sign * right.Sign, z, DataBitWidth);
    }
    public static FixedBigInteger operator &(FixedBigInteger left, FixedBigInteger right)
    {
        if (left == 0 || right == 0)
            return 0;
        var z    = new uint[Math.Max(left.Data.Length, right.Data.Length)];
        var lExt = left.Sign  < 0 ? uint.MaxValue : 0U;
        var rExt = right.Sign < 0 ? uint.MaxValue : 0U;
        for (var i = 0; i < z.Length; i++)
        {
            var xu = i < left.Data.Length ? left.Data[i] : lExt;
            var yu = i < right.Data.Length ? right.Data[i] : rExt;
            z[i] = xu & yu;
        }
        return new FixedBigInteger(left.Sign * right.Sign, z, DataBitWidth);
    }
    public FixedBigInteger Sqrt()
    {
        var n     = this;
        var q     = One << ((int) Math.Ceiling(Log(n, 2)) >> 1);
        var steps = 0;
        var m     = Zero;
        while (Abs(q - m) >= 1)
        {
            m = q;
            q = (m + n / m) >> 1;
            steps++;
        }
        return q;
    }
    public FixedBigInteger Pow(int e)
    {
        var ans = this;
        if (e == 1)
            return ans;
        if (e == 0)
            return 1;
        for (var i = 1; i != e; i++)
            ans *= this;
        return ans;
    }
    public static FixedBigInteger ModPow(FixedBigInteger n, FixedBigInteger e, FixedBigInteger m)
    {
        var n1 = new BigIntX(n);
        var e1 = new BigIntX(e);
        var m1 = new BigIntX(m);
        var r  = new BigIntX(1);
        while (e1 != 0)
        {
            if (e1 % 2 == 1)
                r = r * n1 % m1;
            e1 >>= 1;
            n1 =   n1 * n1 % m1;
        }
        return new FixedBigInteger(r.ToByteArray(), DataBitWidth);
    }
    public bool Fermat(FixedBigInteger candidate)
    {
        uint[] wits = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41};
        var    pmo  = candidate - 1;
        for (var i = 0; i < wits.Length; i++)
        {
            var r = ModPow(wits[i], pmo, candidate);
            if (r != One)
                return false;
        }
        return true;
    }
    private static bool MillerRabin(FixedBigInteger candidate)
    {
        uint[] w = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41};
        var    s = 0;
        var    d = candidate - One;
        while ((d & 1) == 0)
        {
            d >>= 1;
            ++s;
        }
        if (s == 0)
            return false;
        var nmo = candidate - One;
        for (var i = 0; i < w.Length; ++i)
        {
            var x = ModPow(w[i], nmo, candidate);
            if (!(x == 1) && !(x == nmo))
            {
                for (var r = 1; r < s; ++r)
                {
                    x = ModPow(x, 2, candidate);
                    if (x == 1)
                        return false;
                    if (x == nmo)
                        break;
                }
                if (!(x == nmo))
                    return false;
            }
        }
        return true;
    }
    public bool IsPrime()
    {
        return MillerRabin(this);
    }
    public static double Log(FixedBigInteger value, double baseValue)
    {
        var c = 0.0;
        var d = 0.5;
        //var dataLength = Length(value.Data);
        var dataLength = value.Data[value.Data.Length - 1] != 0U ? value.Data.Length : value.Data.Length - 1;
        var topBits    = 0; //BitLengthOfUInt(value.Data[dataLength - 1]);
        var x          = value.Data[dataLength - 1];
        while (x > 0)
        {
            x >>= 1;
            topBits++;
        }
        var bitLength = (dataLength - 1) * 32 + topBits;
        var bit       = (uint) (1 << (topBits - 1));
        for (var index = dataLength - 1; index >= 0; --index)
        {
            for (; bit != 0U; bit >>= 1)
            {
                if (((int) value.Data[index] & (int) bit) != 0)
                    c += d;
                d *= 0.5;
            }
            bit = 2147483648U;
        }
        return (Math.Log(c) + 0.69314718055994530941723212145818 * bitLength) / Math.Log(baseValue);
    }
    public static List<FixedBigInteger> GetFactors(FixedBigInteger n)
    {
        var Factors = new List<FixedBigInteger>();
        var s       = n.Sqrt();
        var a       = Three;
        while (a < s)
        {
            if (n % a == 0)
            {
                Factors.Add(a);
                if (a * a != n)
                    Factors.Add(n / a);
            }
            a += 2;
        }
        return Factors;
    }
    public static FixedBigInteger GreatestCommonDivisor(FixedBigInteger a, FixedBigInteger b)
    {
        while (b > 0)
        {
            var r = a % b;
            a = b;
            b = r;
        }
        return a;
    }
    public static FixedBigInteger LeastCommonMultiple(FixedBigInteger a, FixedBigInteger b)
    {
        return a * b / a.Gcd(b);
    }
    public static double Log10(FixedBigInteger value)
    {
        return Log(value, 10.0);
    }
    public static double LogN(FixedBigInteger value)
    {
        return Log(value, 2.0);
    }
    private class FixedBigIntegerConverter : TypeConverter
    {
        public override bool CanConvertFrom(ITypeDescriptorContext context, Type sourceType)
        {
            return sourceType == typeof(string) || base.CanConvertFrom(context, sourceType);
        }
        public override object ConvertFrom(ITypeDescriptorContext context, CultureInfo culture, object value)
        {
            if (value != null)
                if (TryParse($"{value}", out var i))
                    return i;
            return new FixedBigInteger(0, DataBitWidth);
        }
        public override bool CanConvertTo(ITypeDescriptorContext context, Type destinationType)
        {
            return destinationType == typeof(string) || base.CanConvertTo(context, destinationType);
        }
        public override object ConvertTo(ITypeDescriptorContext context, CultureInfo culture, object value, Type destinationType)
        {
            return destinationType == typeof(string) ? $"{value}" : base.ConvertTo(context, culture, value, destinationType);
        }
    }
}
public class FixedBigIntegerComparer : IComparer<FixedBigInteger>
{
    public int Compare(FixedBigInteger left, FixedBigInteger right)
    {
        return left.CompareTo(right);
    }
    public bool Equals(FixedBigInteger left, FixedBigInteger right)
    {
        if (left == null || right == null)
            return false;
        return left.Equals(right);
    }
    public int GetHashCode(FixedBigInteger obj)
    {
        return obj.GetHashCode();
    }
}

Random64.cs

Example Code:
Add a 256x256 panel to a form.

            var lrng = new Random64(65536, 256, 2);
            var g = panel1.CreateGraphics();
            var bm  = new Bitmap(256, 256);
            var buf = lrng.GetNextBoolArrayLimit(65536);
            var ptr = 0;
            for (var y = 0; y < 256; y++)
            for (var x = 0; x < 256; x++)
            {
                var r = buf[ptr++];
                if (r)
                {
                    bm.SetPixel(x, y, Color.White);
                }
                else
                {
                    bm.SetPixel(x, y, Color.Black);
                }
            }
            g.DrawImageUnscaled(bm, 0, 0);
using System;
using System.Security.Cryptography;
[Serializable]
public class Random64 : RandomNumberGenerator
{
    private byte[]         _buffer;
    private JitterCacheRng _crng;
    private double         _dBi;
    private ulong          UpperLimit = ulong.MaxValue;
    public Random64()
    {
        SetDataUse = 8;
        _crng      = new JitterCacheRng(1024 << 10);
    }
    /// <summary>
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="cacheSize">Size of the cache in bytes</param>
    public Random64(int cacheSize)
    {
        SetDataUse = 8;
        _crng      = new JitterCacheRng(cacheSize * 8, 128, 64, 4);
    }
    /// <summary>
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="cacheSize">Size of the cache in bytes</param>
    /// <param name="seedSize">Size of the seed key as generated by Jitter.cs</param>
    public Random64(int cacheSize, int seedSize)
    {
        SetDataUse = 8;
        _crng      = new JitterCacheRng(cacheSize * 8, seedSize, 64, 4);
    }
    /// <summary>
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="cacheSize">Size of the cache in bytes</param>
    /// <param name="seedSize">Size of the seed key as generated by Jitter.cs</param>
    /// <param name="dataSize">
    ///     Use SetDataUse to conserve the jitter buffer depletion. 
    ///     Sets the data size in bytes to be used by the GetBytes buffer. Also determines the inverse
    ///     MaxValue
    /// </param>
    public Random64(int cacheSize, int seedSize, int dataSize, int sha3Size = 64, int sha3Rounds = 4)
    {
        SetDataUse = dataSize;
        _crng      = new JitterCacheRng(cacheSize * dataSize, seedSize, sha3Size, sha3Rounds);
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Very, Very Slow...
    /// </summary>
    public bool Protect
    {
        get => _crng.Protect;
        set => _crng.Protect = value;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Use SetDataUse to conserve the jitter buffer depletion
    /// </summary>
    public int SetDataUse
    {
        get => _buffer.Length;
        set
        {
            var v = value;
            if (v < 1 || v > 8 || v == 3 || v == 5 || v == 6 || v == 7)
                throw new ArgumentException($"Value {v} must be either 1 or 2 or 4 or 8");
            switch (v)
            {
                case 1:
                    _dBi       = 1.0D / byte.MaxValue;
                    UpperLimit = byte.MaxValue;
                    _buffer    = new byte[1];
                    break;
                case 2:
                    _dBi       = 1.0D / ushort.MaxValue;
                    UpperLimit = ushort.MaxValue;
                    _buffer    = new byte[2];
                    break;
                case 4:
                    _dBi       = 1.0D / uint.MaxValue;
                    UpperLimit = uint.MaxValue;
                    _buffer    = new byte[4];
                    break;
                case 8:
                    _dBi       = 1.0D / ulong.MaxValue;
                    UpperLimit = ulong.MaxValue;
                    _buffer    = new byte[8];
                    break;
                default:
                    _dBi       = 1.0D / ulong.MaxValue;
                    UpperLimit = ulong.MaxValue;
                    _buffer    = new byte[8];
                    break;
            }
        }
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Will generate only odd values
    /// </summary>
    public bool OddsOnly
    {
        get;
        set;
    }
    private double Sample()
    {
        ulong Internal()
        {
            _crng.GetBytes(_buffer);
            return BufferToLong(_buffer);
        }
        return Internal() * _dBi;
    }
    public ulong Next(ulong minValue, ulong maxValue)
    {
        var sa = Sample();
        var fi = (double) (maxValue - minValue + minValue);
        var n  = (ulong) (sa * fi);
        n = !OddsOnly ? n : n | 1;
        return n;
    }
    public ulong Next(ulong maxValue)
    {
        return Next(0, maxValue);
    }
    public ulong Next()
    {
        return Next(0, UpperLimit);
    }
    public unsafe double NextDouble()
    {
        var buf = new byte[8];
        GetBytes(buf);
        fixed (byte* ptr = buf)
        {
            return *(ulong*) ptr * _dBi * ulong.MaxValue;
        }
    }
    public char[] GetNextCharArray(int size)
    {
        var xbc = new byte[1];
        var ca  = new char[size];
        var ptr = 0;
        do
        {
            _crng.GetBytes(xbc);
            var c = xbc[0];
            if (c >= 32 && c <= 127)
                ca[ptr++] = (char) c;
        } while (ptr < size);
        return ca;
    }
    public byte[] GetNextByteArray(int size)
    {
        var ba = new byte[size];
        _crng.GetBytes(ba);
        return ba;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     Next(0,2)==0?false:true; has a distribution error of 1% weighted toward zero.
    ///     The distribution error here is 0.000000046% which is statistically insignificant in this context.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="size"></param>
    /// <returns></returns>
    public bool[] GetNextBoolArrayLimit(int size)
    {
        var       ba = new bool[size];
        const uint ll = uint.MaxValue >> 1;
        for (var i = 0; i < size; ++i)
            ba[i] = Next(0, uint.MaxValue) > ll;
        return ba;
    }
    public byte[] GetNextByteArrayLimit(int size, ulong minValue, ulong maxValue)
    {
        var ba = new byte[size];
        for (var i = 0; i < size; ++i)
            ba[i] = (byte) Next(minValue, maxValue);
        return ba;
    }
    public ushort[] GetNextUShortArrayLimit(int size, ulong minValue, ulong maxValue)
    {
        var ba = new ushort[size];
        for (var i = 0; i < size; ++i)
            ba[i] = (ushort) Next(minValue, maxValue);
        return ba;
    }
    public uint[] GetNextUIntArrayLimit(int size, ulong minValue, ulong maxValue)
    {
        var ba = new uint[size];
        for (var i = 0; i < size; ++i)
            ba[i] = (uint) Next(minValue, maxValue);
        return ba;
    }
    public ulong[] GetNextULongArrayLimit(int size, ulong minValue, ulong maxValue)
    {
        var ba = new ulong[size];
        for (var i = 0; i < size; ++i)
            ba[i] = Next(minValue, maxValue);
        return ba;
    }
    public string GetRandomString(int minLen, int maxLen)
    {
        if (minLen == maxLen)
            return new string(GetNextCharArray(minLen));
        return new string(GetNextCharArray((int) Next((ulong) minLen, (ulong) maxLen)));
    }
    public override void GetBytes(byte[] data)
    {
        if (data == null)
            throw new ArgumentException("The buffer cannot be null.");
        _crng.GetBytes(data);
    }
    public void NextBytes(byte[] buffer)
    {
        if (buffer == null)
            throw new ArgumentNullException("The buffer cannot be null.");
        for (var index = 0; index < buffer.Length; ++index)
            buffer[index] = (byte) (Sample() * byte.MaxValue);
    }
    private unsafe ulong BufferToLong(byte[] buffer)
    {
        var len = buffer.Length;
        if (len < 1 || len > 8)
            throw new ArgumentException($"The array length {len} must be between 1 and 8");
        fixed (byte* Ptr = &buffer[0])
        {
            switch (len)
            {
                case 1:
                    return *Ptr;
                case 2:
                    return (uint) (*Ptr | (Ptr[1] << 8));
                case 3:
                    return (uint) (*Ptr | (Ptr[1] << 8) | (Ptr[2] << 16));
                case 4:
                    return (uint) (*Ptr | (Ptr[1] << 8) | (Ptr[2] << 16) | (Ptr[3] << 24));
                case 5:
                    return (uint) (*Ptr | (Ptr[1] << 8) | (Ptr[2] << 16) | (Ptr[3] << 24)) | ((ulong) Ptr[4] << 32);
                case 6:
                    return (uint) (*Ptr | (Ptr[1] << 8) | (Ptr[2] << 16) | (Ptr[3] << 24)) | ((ulong) (Ptr[4] | (Ptr[5] << 8)) << 32);
                case 7:
                    return (uint) (*Ptr | (Ptr[1] << 8) | (Ptr[2] << 16) | (Ptr[3] << 24)) | ((ulong) (Ptr[4] | (Ptr[5] << 8) | (Ptr[6] << 16)) << 32);
                case 8:
                    return (uint) (*Ptr | (Ptr[1] << 8) | (Ptr[2] << 16) | (Ptr[3] << 24)) | ((ulong) (Ptr[4] | (Ptr[5] << 8) | (Ptr[6] << 16) | (Ptr[7] << 24)) << 32);
                default:
                    return 0;
            }
        }
    }
}

JitterCacheRng.cs

using System;
using System.Security.Cryptography;
using System.Threading;
[Serializable]
public class JitterCacheRng : RandomNumberGenerator
{
    private const    int        ReSecureThreshold = 10;
    private readonly SHA3ModInt _algorithm;
    private readonly JitterEx   _jit;
    private readonly int        _moveSize;
    private          int        _availableCacheBytes;
    private          byte[]     _cache;
    private          byte[]     _cacheBuffer;
    private          int        _cacheSize;
    private          int        _ptr;
    public           int        cacheFills;
    public JitterCacheRng() : this(1048576, 256, 256, 4)
    {
    }
    public JitterCacheRng(int cacheSize) : this(cacheSize, 256, 256, 4)
    {
    }
    public JitterCacheRng(int cacheSize, int seedSize) : this(cacheSize, seedSize, 256, 4)
    {
    }
    public JitterCacheRng(int cacheSize, int seedSize, int sha3Size) : this(cacheSize, seedSize, sha3Size, 4)
    {
    }
    public JitterCacheRng(int cacheSize, int seedSize, int sha3Size, int sha3Rounds)
    {
        if (cacheSize == 0)
            throw new ArgumentException("Cache Size cannot be zero");
        if (seedSize < 256)
            throw new ArgumentException("The seed size should be 256 or more bytes.");
        if (sha3Size < 64 && sha3Size % 64 != 0)
            throw new ArgumentException("The bitWidth of the SHA3 hash algorithm need to be at least 64 bits and a multiple of 64.");
        if (sha3Rounds < 4)
            throw new ArgumentException("Sha3 rounds of less than 4 might produce some short run repetitive sequences.");
        _cacheSize   = cacheSize;
        _jit         = new JitterEx(seedSize);
        _cacheBuffer = _jit.GetBuffer();
        _cache       = new byte[_cacheSize];
        _algorithm   = new SHA3ModInt(sha3Size, sha3Rounds);
        _moveSize    = _algorithm.ComputeHash(2.GetBytes()).Length;
        FillCache();
    }
    public bool Protect
    {
        get;
        set;
    }
    protected override void Dispose(bool disposing)
    {
        _cache.Fill(0);
        _availableCacheBytes = 0;
        _algorithm.Dispose();
    }
    public override void GetBytes(byte[] data)
    {
        if (data.Length > _cacheSize)
        {
            _cacheSize = data.Length;
            _cache     = new byte[_cacheSize];
            FillCache();
        }
        if (_availableCacheBytes == 0 || _availableCacheBytes < data.Length)
        {
            if (_cacheSize < data.Length)
            {
                _cacheSize = data.Length;
                _cache     = new byte[_cacheSize];
            }
            FillCache();
        }
        if (_ptr + data.Length > _cacheSize)
            FillCache();
        if (Protect)
            ProtectedMemory.Unprotect(_cache, MemoryProtectionScope.SameLogon);
        Buffer.BlockCopy(_cache, _ptr, data, 0, data.Length);
        if (Protect)
            ProtectedMemory.Protect(_cache, MemoryProtectionScope.SameLogon);
        _ptr                 += data.Length;
        _availableCacheBytes -= data.Length;
    }
    private void FillCache()
    {
        var btrd = new Thread(() =>
        {
            _availableCacheBytes = 0;
            _ptr                 = 0;
            var p        = 0;
            var moveSize = _moveSize;
            cacheFills++;
            if (cacheFills % ReSecureThreshold == 0)
                _cacheBuffer = _jit.GetBuffer();
            if (Protect)
                ProtectedMemory.Unprotect(_cache, MemoryProtectionScope.SameLogon);
            while (true)
            {
                var remainingBytesToMove = _cacheSize - _availableCacheBytes;
                if (remainingBytesToMove < moveSize)
                    moveSize = remainingBytesToMove;
                if (remainingBytesToMove <= 0)
                    break;
                _cacheBuffer = _algorithm.ComputeHash(_cacheBuffer);
                Buffer.BlockCopy(_cacheBuffer, 0, _cache, p, moveSize);
                p                    += moveSize;
                _availableCacheBytes += moveSize;
            }
            if (Protect)
                ProtectedMemory.Protect(_cache, MemoryProtectionScope.SameLogon);
        }) {Priority = ThreadPriority.Highest};
        btrd.Start();
        btrd.Join();
    }
}

JitterEx.cs

//#define TEST
using System;
using System.Diagnostics;
using System.Management;
using System.Runtime.CompilerServices;
using System.Threading;
[Serializable]
public class JitterEx
{
    private const    int    DesaturationLoopLimit = 500;
    private const    int    UpperCpuLoadLimit     = 90;
    private const    int    LowerCpuLoadLimit     = 10;
    private static   bool   _scaleSet;
    private readonly int    _bufferSize;
    private readonly object _lock = new object();
    private readonly Random _prng;
    private          byte[] _rngCache;
    private          int    _tscLoopLimitCpu  = 10;
    private          int    _tscSampleSizeRam = 18;
    public JitterEx(int buffersize, bool randomize = false)
    {
        _bufferSize = buffersize;
        _rngCache   = new byte[_bufferSize];
        _prng       = new Random();
        Randomize   = randomize;
        SetScale();
    }
    public bool Randomize
    {
        get;
        set;
    }
#if TEST
    public void TestListF()
    {
        var rlst = new List<List<(byte[], int)>>();
        for (var i = 0; i < TestList.Count; i++)
        {
            var f = TestList[i];
            for (var j = i + 1; j < TestList.Count; j++)
            {
                var s = TestList[j];
                rlst.Add(new BMPartialPatternSearch(3).SearchPartialAll(f, s));
            }
        }
    }
#endif
    [MethodImpl(MethodImplOptions.NoOptimization)]
    private float GetCpuSpeed()
    {
        void Loop()
        {
            var i = 0;
            while (true)
                i = i + 1 - 1;
        }
        var cpuCounter = new PerformanceCounter("Processor Information", "% Processor Performance", "_Total");
        var cpuValue   = cpuCounter.NextValue();
        var loop       = new Thread(() => Loop()) {Priority = ThreadPriority.Highest};
        var Speed      = 0f;
        lock (_lock)
        {
            loop.Start();
            Thread.Sleep(60);
            cpuValue = cpuCounter.NextValue();
            loop.Abort();
        }
        foreach (ManagementObject obj in new ManagementObjectSearcher("SELECT *, Name FROM Win32_Processor").Get())
        {
            var v = Convert.ToSingle(obj["MaxClockSpeed"]);
            Speed = v / 1000 * cpuValue / 100;
        }
        return Speed;
    }
    /// <summary>
    ///     This is a fairly arbitrary value which is based on the CPU speed. 4.7 is the speed on which the tests are based.
    /// </summary>
    private void SetScale()
    {
        if (_scaleSet)
            return;
        _scaleSet = true;
        const float baseFreq = 4.7f;
        var         thisFreq = GetCpuSpeed();
        var         rat      = baseFreq / thisFreq;
        _tscLoopLimitCpu  = (int) Math.Ceiling(_tscLoopLimitCpu  * rat);
        _tscSampleSizeRam = (int) Math.Ceiling(_tscSampleSizeRam * rat);
    }
    private void LoadBlock()
    {
        var DesaturationLoops = 0;
        var dump              = CpuTotalPc.CPULoad;
        do
        {
            Thread.Sleep(0);
            DesaturationLoops++;
        } while (DesaturationLoops < DesaturationLoopLimit && ((int) CpuTotalPc.CPULoad > UpperCpuLoadLimit || (int) CpuTotalPc.CPULoad < LowerCpuLoadLimit));
    }
    [MethodImpl(MethodImplOptions.NoInlining)]
    private byte[] GetBufferCpu()
    {
        void Loop()
        {
            var x = 0;
            for (var i = 0; i < _tscLoopLimitCpu; i++)
                x = x + 1 - 1;
        }
        var jitterBuffer = new byte[_bufferSize];
        var ptr          = 0;
        LoadBlock();
        lock (_lock)
        {
            var start = Rdtsc.TimestampP();
            do
            {
                var loop = new Thread(() => Loop()) {Priority = ThreadPriority.Highest};
                loop.Start();
                loop.Join();
                var stop = Rdtsc.TimestampP();
                Buffer.BlockCopy((100000.0 / ((stop - start) * 100000.0)).GetBytes(), 0, jitterBuffer, ptr, 4);
                start =  stop;
                ptr   += 4;
            } while (ptr < _bufferSize);
            return jitterBuffer;
        }
    }
    [MethodImpl(MethodImplOptions.NoInlining)]
    private unsafe byte[] GetBufferRam()
    {
        void Loop()
        {
            byte tempByte;
            fixed (byte* p1 = _rngCache)
            {
                var x1 = p1;
                for (var j = 0; j < _tscSampleSizeRam; ++j, ++x1)
                    tempByte = *x1;
            }
        }
        LoadBlock();
        var jitterBuffer = new byte[_bufferSize];
        lock (_lock)
        {
            if (_rngCache.Length != _bufferSize)
                _rngCache = new byte[_bufferSize];
            _prng.NextBytes(_rngCache);
            var ptr   = 0;
            var start = Rdtsc.TimestampP();
            while (true)
            {
                do
                {
                    var loop = new Thread(() => Loop()) {Priority = ThreadPriority.Highest};
                    loop.Start();
                    loop.Join();
                    var stop = Rdtsc.TimestampP();
                    Buffer.BlockCopy((100000.0 / ((stop - start) * 100000.0)).GetBytes(), 0, jitterBuffer, ptr, 4);
                    start =  stop;
                    ptr   += 4;
                    if (ptr < _bufferSize)
                    {
                        if (_rngCache.Length != _bufferSize)
                            _rngCache = new byte[_bufferSize];
                        _prng.NextBytes(_rngCache);
                    }
                } while (ptr < _bufferSize);
                return jitterBuffer;
            }
        }
    }
    public byte[] GetBuffer()
    {
        var firstBuffer = GetBufferCpu();
#if TEST
        ///Weighting add 15%, perfection is not what we are looking for here.
        var lim = _bufferSize <= 256 ? _bufferSize / 256.0 * 85.0 : 6.8;
        if (ent.Entropy(firstBuffer) < lim)
            throw new Exception("Error CPU Jitter Buffer Contains only zeros.");
#endif
        var secondBuffer = GetBufferRam();
#if TEST
        if (ent.Entropy(secondBuffer) < lim)
            throw new Exception("Error CPU Jitter Buffer Contains only zeros.");
#endif
        var finalBuffer = new byte[_bufferSize];
        for (var j = 0; j < _bufferSize; ++j)
            finalBuffer[j] = (byte) (firstBuffer[j] ^ secondBuffer[j]);
#if TEST
        if (ent.Entropy(finalBuffer) < lim)
            throw new Exception("Error CPU Jitter Buffer Contains only zeros.");
#endif
        if (Randomize)
        {
            var ula    = CreateNoiseArrays(finalBuffer);
            var rBlock = new byte[ula.Length * 8];
            Buffer.BlockCopy(ula, 0, rBlock, 0, ula.Length * 8);
#if TEST
            if (_bufferSize >= 256)
            {
                var loop = new Thread(() =>
                {
                    if (!rBlock.ChiSquaredTest().isRandom)
                        MessageBoxEx.Show("Warning", "Block not random.", MessageBoxExButtons.OK, MessageBoxExIcon.Warning);
                }) {Priority = ThreadPriority.Highest};
                loop.Start();
            }
            TestList.Add(rBlock);
#endif
            return rBlock;
        }
#if TEST
        if (_bufferSize >= 256)
        {
            var loop = new Thread(() =>
            {
                if (!finalBuffer.ChiSquaredTest().isRandom)
                    MessageBoxEx.Show("Warning", "Block not random.", MessageBoxExButtons.OK, MessageBoxExIcon.Warning);
            }) {Priority = ThreadPriority.Highest};
            loop.Start();
        }
        TestList.Add(finalBuffer);
#endif
        return finalBuffer;
    }
    private ulong[] ByteArrayToULongArray(byte[] ba, int finalSize)
    {
        var minSize = ba.Length / 8;
        if (finalSize < minSize)
            finalSize = minSize;
        ba = PadULong(ba);
        var result = new ulong[finalSize];
        for (var i = 0; i < ba.Length; i += 8)
            Buffer.BlockCopy(ba, i, result, i, 8);
        return result;
    }
    private static byte[] PadULong(byte[] ba)
    {
        var s = ba.Length % 8;
        switch (s)
        {
            case 0:
                break;
            case 1:
                Array.Resize(ref ba, ba.Length + 7);
                ba[ba.Length - 1] = 0x80;
                ba[ba.Length - 2] = 0x80;
                ba[ba.Length - 3] = 0x80;
                ba[ba.Length - 4] = 0x80;
                ba[ba.Length - 5] = 0x80;
                ba[ba.Length - 6] = 0x80;
                ba[ba.Length - 7] = 0x80;
                break;
            case 2:
                Array.Resize(ref ba, ba.Length + 6);
                ba[ba.Length - 1] = 0x80;
                ba[ba.Length - 2] = 0x80;
                ba[ba.Length - 3] = 0x80;
                ba[ba.Length - 4] = 0x80;
                ba[ba.Length - 5] = 0x80;
                ba[ba.Length - 6] = 0x80;
                break;
            case 3:
                Array.Resize(ref ba, ba.Length + 5);
                ba[ba.Length - 1] = 0x80;
                ba[ba.Length - 2] = 0x80;
                ba[ba.Length - 3] = 0x80;
                ba[ba.Length - 4] = 0x80;
                ba[ba.Length - 5] = 0x80;
                break;
            case 4:
                Array.Resize(ref ba, ba.Length + 4);
                ba[ba.Length - 1] = 0x80;
                ba[ba.Length - 2] = 0x80;
                ba[ba.Length - 3] = 0x80;
                ba[ba.Length - 4] = 0x80;
                break;
            case 5:
                Array.Resize(ref ba, ba.Length + 3);
                ba[ba.Length - 1] = 0x80;
                ba[ba.Length - 2] = 0x80;
                ba[ba.Length - 3] = 0x80;
                break;
            case 6:
                Array.Resize(ref ba, ba.Length + 2);
                ba[ba.Length - 1] = 0x80;
                ba[ba.Length - 2] = 0x80;
                break;
            case 7:
                Array.Resize(ref ba, ba.Length + 1);
                ba[ba.Length - 1] = 0x80;
                break;
        }
        return ba;
    }
    private static void Extrude(ulong[] x)
    {
        var size = x.Length;
        for (var i = 0; i < size; i++)
        {
            ulong n = 0;
            var   j = 0;
            while (j < size)
            {
                n ^= x[j];
                ++j;
            }
            x[i] = (n << 1) | (n >> 56);
        }
    }
    private ulong[] CreateNoiseArrays(byte[] ba)
    {
        var ula = ByteArrayToULongArray(ba, ba.Length / 8);
        Extrude(ula);
        return ula;
    }
    internal class EntropyI
    {
        private const double NaturalLogOfTwo = 0.69314718055994530941723212145818; //Math.Log(2);
        /// <summary>
        ///     Get the Entropy from 1 to 100% 1 being very ordered data,
        ///     100% being very disordered data.
        /// </summary>
        public double Entropy(byte[] a)
        {
            var h = new int[256];
            var l = a.Length;
            for (var i = 0; i < l; ++i)
                h[a[i]]++;
            var e = 0.0;
            for (var i = 0; i < 256; ++i)
            {
                var v = h[i];
                if (v <= 0)
                    continue;
                var r = v             / (double) l;
                e -= r * (Math.Log(r) / NaturalLogOfTwo);
            }
            return e / 8.0 * 100.0;
        }
    }
#if TEST
    private EntropyI     ent = new EntropyI();
    private List<byte[]> TestList = new List<byte[]>();
#endif
}